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Article

Russian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1873; died 1932.

Sculptor, draughtsman. Busts, monuments.

Symbolism.

Nicolai Andreevich Andreev received the authorisation to draw in Lenin's office in 1919; from these drawings, which later were also used by other artists, he executed a series of busts that made him famous. Andreev also sculpted the monuments in Moscow to Gogol and Herzen, the 19th-century revolutionary writer....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Symbolism.

Jean Anguera is the grandson of the sculptor Pablo Gargallo. He graduated in architecture in 1978 (UP2) in Paris. He also attended lectures by César Baldaccini at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Shilova, Lithuania; died, 2 July 2015, in Sudbury, Massachusetts.

Painter, sculptor, pastellist. Figures, portraits.

Symbolism.

David Aronson was the son of a rabbi and arrived in the USA at the age of five. He founded the School of Art at the University of Boston, which he ran for 30 years. He received many awards including the Purchase Prize at the National Academy of Fine Arts in ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Also active in France.

Born 1 January 1888, in Kherson; died 1944, deported to a concentration camp during World War II.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), sculptor.

Symbolism, Orphism.

After his secondary school studies in Odessa, Baranoff-Rossiné studied at the Academy of Art in St Petersburg from 1903 to 1907. He devoted himself to a career in painting. From 1907 to 1910, he exhibited with various groups including...

Article

Polish, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 29 March 1877, in Koziezin; died 1954, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter.

Symbolism.

Boleslaw Biegas was apprenticed in 1895 to the wood sculptor Antoni Panasiuk in Warsaw. In 1896 he showed a series of sculptures at a bookseller's in Warsaw and in the same year he was admitted to the academy of fine art in Cracow with Daun and Laszczka. He then started exhibiting at the city's Society for the Encouragement of Fine Art. Introduced to oil painting in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 27 July 1960, in Lourdes.

Sculptor, draughtsman. Figures.

Symbolism.

Mauro Corda studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Rheims before going on to work in Jean Cardot's atelier in Paris in 1984. He was awarded the Paul Belmondo Prize while serving as artist-in-residence at the Casa Velázquez, and he is also a Princess Grace of Monaco Prize laureate. The Guigné Gallery in Paris organised a comprehensive exhibition of his work in ...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, female.

Active from 1956 active in France.

Born 15 January 1934, in Courtrai.

Painter, sculptor.

Symbolism.

Jos Decock was a pupil at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Etterbeek, and studied under Edgar Tytgat in Brussels between 1950 and 1954. She moved to Paris to work at the Académie de la Grande-Chaumière, and was naturalised French by marriage. In 1958 she won the Prix de la Jeune Peinture Belge and, in the same year, an award from the society of the friends of the Musée d'Art Moderne. In 1960 she was awarded a medal by the City of Paris....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1 January 1919, in Bar-le-Duc.

Sculptor, painter. Designs for stained glass.

Symbolism.

René Durrbach trained at the Académie Julian in Paris, and exhibited at the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles and the Salon de Jeune Sculpture in Paris. In 1967 he had work included in the Exposition internationale in Montreal. He had a number of solo exhibitions, especially in Cannes and in the Midi where he lived. His painting style is esoteric, both Lyrical and Expressionist, almost Abstract. He designed the windows of the church in Mézières....

Article

Filipino, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1972, in Las Piñas City, Manila, Philippines.

Painter, sculptor. Religious subjects, socio-political themes.

Folk art, symbolism.

Anting-Anting Group.

Alfredo Esquillo Jr. graduated from the University of Santo Tomas College of Fine Arts in 1993. He first gained recognition when he won first prize in the ASEAN Art Awards in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 16 December 1946, in Boulogne-sur-Seine.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, sculptor, art restorer. Figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Symbolism.

Béatrice Flaud studied history of art at the École du Louvre in Paris, and received a broad artistic education, studying engraving, painting and art restoration....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Audenarde; died 1965, in Laethem-St-Martin.

Painter. Religious subjects, still-lifes.

Symbolism.

Gevaert was the son-in-law of the painter and sculptor Georges Minne. He was self-taught in painting, and was also a poet and a composer.

Article

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in the USA.

Born 6 January 1883, in Bécharré; died 10 April 1931, in New York.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, sculptor, poet. Figures, portraits.

Symbolism.

Together with his family, Khalil Gibran left the Lebanon at the age of 12, and settled in Boston, where his artistic talent brought him to the attention of well-known writers and artists. He had to return to the Lebanon in ...

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 25 November 1946, in León.

Painter, sculptor. Figures.

Symbolism.

Vicente Guttierrez Tascon trained in drawing and ceramics in León, and went on to join the ceramics department at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. Guttierrez Tascon paints female figures, such as mothers working or with their children. His world is a calm, soothing and serene one of almost voluptuous languidness, but is also a world in which the almost primitivist schematism of form suspends reality, transforming it into the abstract. These same sculptural forms are naturally found in his bronzes....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 March 1853, in Bern; died 19 May 1918, in Geneva.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman. History painting, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, animals.

Symbolism.

Ferdinand Hodler was born into a poor family. His father, a carpenter, died of tuberculosis when Hodler was eight, leaving five children in poverty. His mother soon remarried, this time to the painter Gottfried Schüpbach, a widower with many children. He taught the young Hodler the rudiments of painting, and the boy became keen on art. The large number of children born of the second marriage made life increasingly hard for the family. They moved to Steffisburg, where Schüpbach had originally come from, and where Hodler's mother died when he was only 13. Soon afterwards Hodler trained as a painter with Ferdinand Sommer in Thun, then with a relative in Langenthal, where he began to make a living from his art. In 1872, he moved to Geneva, where the influential painters of the time were Alexandre Calarne and François Diday. After a few years, he met Barthelemy Menn, who took an interest in his work. Although Hodler was still living in poverty he managed to produce a number of paintings during this period. Menn, a friend of Corot, was also an admirer of Ingres. He seems to have encouraged Hodler to apply geometry to his work. The theory of parallelism, which Hodler formulated around 1880, also coincided with a religious crisis he was going through at the time, and he turned to symbolism. He said that symbolist art should suggest not the being but what it might become, not immobility but movement and transition, not the pose but motion. Hodler often used a variety of procedures derived from parallelism, indicating movement by regularly repeating the same figure throughout the composition or by breaking down a movement into its components and distributing the stages among the various figures in the composition. This is what caused Frank Popper to include Hodler in his book ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 2 July 1920, in Rodez.

Painter, sculptor.

Symbolism.

Georges Hot graduated from the Faculté de Droit and the Faculté de Lettres in Paris and trained at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and at the private academies in Montparnasse. He lived in Paris until ...

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in Germany.

Born 1951.

Painter, sculptor, draughtswoman, watercolourist. Figures.

Symbolism.

Leiko Ikemura lives in Cologne and Berlin, where she teaches painting at the Hochschule der Künste. She started to become known in the 1980s, notably in Switzerland. Her style, related to the new Expressionism of the beginning of the 1980s, has veered towards Symbolism. The central figures of her mythology are a little girl and a cat, and her magical universe is bathed in metamorphoses between the animal, vegetable and human kingdoms. She shows her works in solo exhibitions, including ...

Article

Karel  

Czech, 20th century, male.

Active and naturalised in France from 1976.

Born 1937, in Zlín.

Painter, sculptor.

Symbolism.

Karel trained at the academy of fine arts in Prague from 1957 to 1963, and lived there until 1976, when he left for Paris for political and cultural reasons. In ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

German, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 12 February 1857, in Plagwitz, near Leipzig; died 5 July 1920, in Grossjena, near Nuremberg.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects. Statues.

Symbolism.

Max Klinger entered the art school in Karlsruhe at the age of 16, where he studied under Karl Gussov. When Gussov accepted a professorship at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, Klinger accompanied him to that city from 1875 to 1878. He also worked in the studio of Arnold Böcklin, who was also an influence. He began to exhibit in public in 1878 with a painting, ...