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Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Plougoumelen.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media).

Bauduin's sculptures, which have a clear geometric tendency, are often realised in plastic materials, such as synthetic resins, and in metal. Bauduin has taken part in group exhibitions, including: Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui, Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Salon de Mai. He took part in ...

Article

Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1940.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Peter Booth passed from Abstract-Minimal painting to a violent Expressionism in 1977, at which time he realised his first Figurative painting. His works frequently depict human misfortunes and torments, in chaotic compositions tinged with religious sentiments....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 26 March 1946, in Le Havre.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media). Low reliefs.

Bosser lives and works in Paris. He realises abstract works on paper, as well as low reliefs revealing the roughness of the material used.

He has taken part in group exhibitions, including: ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Elizabeth Johns

(Cowperthwaite)

(b Philadelphia, PA, July 25, 1844; d Philadelphia, June 25, 1916).

American painter, sculptor and photographer. He was a portrait painter who chose most of his sitters and represented them in powerful but often unflattering physical and psychological terms. Although unsuccessful throughout much of his career, since the 1930s he has been regarded as one of the greatest American painters of his era.

His father Benjamin Eakins (1818–99), the son of a Scottish–Irish immigrant weaver, was a writing master and amateur artist who encouraged Thomas Eakins’s developing talent. Eakins attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, which stressed skills in drawing as well as a democratic respect for disciplined achievement. He developed an interest in human anatomy and began visiting anatomical clinics. After studying from 1862 at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, where instruction was minimal, Eakins went to Paris to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, in the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme. From 1866 to the end of ...

Article

American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 25 July 1844, in Philadelphia; died 25 June 1916, in Philadelphia.

Painter, sculptor. Nudes, portraits, genre scenes, sporting subjects.

Realism.

Thomas Cowperthwaite Eakins’ father was a writing master in Philadelphia. Between 1861 and 1866, he enrolled in a drawing course at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art and at the same time followed a course in anatomy at the medical faculty. At Jefferson Medical College, he attended and participated in dissections and produced studies of nudes. In 1866, he went to Paris, enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts, and spent over three years working in Jean-Léon Gérôme’s studio. His meticulous attention to detail and taste for drawing gave him an advantage at the school, an institution that was still dominated by the art of Ingres. He also attended the atelier of Léon Bonnat, who stressed anatomical exactitude. After a trip to Spain, where he was impressed by Ribera and Velázquez, he returned to Philadelphia in 1870. In 1877, he was appointed professor of drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of Art. In 1886, a dispute about his decision to use a male nude model in a mixed class led to his forced resignation. In the summer of 1887, he made a 10-week trip to the Dakota Badlands. He became an isolated painter, painting subjects acceptable to the larger public but where the introduction of nudes was unavoidable. An example is ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, collage artist, decorative designer. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets.

Groups: Hundsgruppe (Dog’s group), Phantastischer Realismus group.

Ernst Fuchs enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1945. From 1946 to 1950, he was a pupil of Gütersloh, whom Salvador Dalí considered the most important painter of his time (after himself). In around 1950, he was one of the founders of the Viennese ...

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 24 October 1962, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter, graphic artist, multimedia artist. Allegorical subjects, abstraction and portraiture. Sculptural objects, conceptual installations.

Of the generation that came of age during Latvia’s transition from Soviet occupation to political independence, Kristaps Ģelzis distinguished himself as the most cerebral of that nation’s artists while, paradoxically, anchoring his work in intrinsic properties of base materials, the timelessness of simple forms, and labour-intensive craft. The son and younger brother of renowned architects, Ģelzis resolved to pursue another creative vocation, first studying violin while attending Riga’s 50th Secondary School, then taking preparatory classes for the Latvian Art Academy in lieu of attending the art high school. As a student in the academy’s department of graphic art ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Vienna; died 1995.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, figures, mythological subjects.

Phantastischer Realismus group.

Rudolf Hausner studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna until 1935 and then stayed in Paris from 1935 to 1937, where he came under the influence of the Impressionists, Cézanne and Van Gogh. He also travelled in Greece and Egypt. In ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in Mannheim.

Sculptor, painter.

Having started as a painter, Mania Kacer studied with Rodin and became a sculptor in the naturalist style.

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in England.

Born 8 May 1837, in Dijon; died 8 December 1911, in Watford, near London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Portraits, genre scenes.

Realism.

Alphonse Legros was the youngest child of a poor family and his education was so neglected that when, at the age of 11, he was apprenticed to a house painter he still could not read. In 1851 he went to Paris, worked with Cambon on theatre sets, then entered the École Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudron. Legros first exhibited at the Salon de Paris with ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1933 or 1934, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, scenes with figures.

Helmut Leherb was a self-taught painter and a member of Wiener Schule des Phantastischen Realismus (Vienna School of Fantastic Realism), the group of Viennese artists spearheaded by Albert Paris Gütersloh who developed a fantasy world portrayed using the painstaking technique peculiar to the German primitives. Work by this group features prominently in several Viennese museums and private collections and Leherb, one of its leading members, played a major role in an exhibition held in Paris in ...

Article

Pierre Baudson

(b Etterbeek, Brussels, April 12, 1831; d Ixelles, Brussels, April 4, 1905).

Belgian sculptor, painter and draughtsman. He was directed towards an artistic career by his elder brother, the engraver Jean-Baptiste Meunier (1821–1900). He entered the Académie des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, in September 1845 and studied under the sculptor Louis Jehotte (1804–84) from 1848. In addition, in 1852 he attended the private studio of the sculptor Charles-Auguste Fraikin. Gradually he came to feel that sculpture, at least in the traditional form taught in Brussels, was incapable of providing an adequate vehicle for either exposition or expression. Still at the Academy, he transferred to painting, therefore, in 1853, and followed the courses given by François-Joseph Navez, studying in the evenings at the Saint-Luc studio, with Charles De Groux. He became friends with Louis Dubois, Félicien Rops and other rebellious young artists who were to found the Société Libre des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1868. With these, Meunier was part of the realist avant-garde, while seeking out a path of his own in painting. It has been said that De Groux had a decisive influence on Meunier. The latter partly denied this and insisted that he had felt the need very early to practise an art that was more devoted to the masses, to the people. His interest in everyday life, in the experience and condition of man, can already be discerned in the sketches and studies he made during his stays in the Trappist monastery of Westmalle, near Antwerp, between ...

Article

Anne K. Swartz

Style of painting, and sometimes sculpture, that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s that involves creating works in extreme detail as a reaction to the abstraction celebrated in the 1940s and 1950s. Photorealist art refers to images of reality rendered in extreme detail, often with aid of photographs. The subjects of this style include portraits, still-lifes, and genre scenes. The genre images usually depict daytime scenes, occasionally night-time scenes, but often at midday so the shadows are at their most dramatic.

Photorealist artists were influenced by Pop art, in which the artists were concerned with media saturation (using media as a source for art) and the reproduction or simulation of mass-produced objects as art. They were also informed by Minimalism, in which the artists emphasized a cool detachment and industrial emphasis. Conceptual art and the artistic interest in the 1960s of making ideas into realities also underscore Photorealism....

Article

Barbara S. Fields

(b Paris, April 20, 1850; d Paris, Feb 11, 1924).

French painter, sculptor and printmaker. He turned to painting in 1870, after his early interest in music and theatre, and took the works of Camille Corot, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Ferdinand Roybet and Mariano Fortuny y Marsal as models for his own work. Raffaëlli painted a landscape that was accepted by the Paris Salon jury of 1870. He enrolled in Gérôme’s atelier in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in October 1871, but his three months there were his only formal training. Together with a few landscapes the major part of his early production consisted of costume pictures, primarily with subjects in Louis XIII dress, such as L’Attaque sous bois (1873; Verdun, Mus. Princerie).

In 1876 Raffaëlli produced a powerful, realistic portrait of a Breton peasant family, the Family of Jean-le-Boîteux, Peasants of Plougasnou (Finistère) (Le Quesnoy, Hôtel de Ville), which signalled a new direction in his art. The portrait was praised by the influential critic Louis-Edmond Duranty. By the late 1870s, Raffaëlli’s career as a realist artist was launched with the support of Duranty and other critics such as J.-K. Huysmans. At the insistence of Edgar Degas, Raffaëlli was included in the ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1916, in Vienna; died 1997.

Painter, sculptor.

Alexandre Rusch cannot be assigned to any particular school or movement. His body of work ranges from outright realism to total abstraction. He does not limit himself to painting or sculpture, and is also involved in music and cinema. Typically, Rutsch welds hallucinatory human and animal figures, but he has explored a wide variety of other techniques....

Article

David Elliott and Piotr Juszkiewicz

[Rus. Sotsialisticheskiy Realizm]

Term used to describe the idealization of the dictatorship of the proletariat in the arts, apparently first used in the Soviet journal Literaturnaya Gazeta on 25 May 1932. After the cultural pluralism of the 1920s in the Soviet Union, and in line with the objectives of the Five-year plans, art was subordinated to the needs and dictates of the Communist Party. In 1932, following four years of ideological struggle and polemic among different artistic groups, the Central Committee of the party disbanded all existing artistic organizations and set up in their place party-led unions for individual art forms. In the summer of 1934, at the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Writers, Socialist Realism was proclaimed the approved method for Soviet artists in all media. Andrey Zhdanov, who gave the keynote address at the Congress, was Stalin’s mouthpiece on cultural policy until his death in 1948. In the words of his leader, the artist was to be ‘an engineer of the human soul’. The aim of the new creative method was ‘to depict reality in its revolutionary development’; no further guidelines concerning style or subject-matter were laid down. Accordingly, the idea of what constituted Socialist Realism evolved negatively out of a series of cultural purges orchestrated by Zhdanov in the pages of ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 June 1873, in Weimar.

Draughtsman, painter, sculptor.

Arnold Waldschmidt attended the academy in Karlsruhe, then lived and worked in Berlin. He was an exponent of Naturalist Expressionism.

Cologne: Bull with Farmer

Frankfurt am Main (Städel): Remorse

Article

Native American (Diné/Navajo), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1966, in Ganado (Arizona).

Printmaker, sculptor, painter.

Political and social realism, abstraction, post-colonial themes.

Melanie Yazzie uses a variety of media including photography, sculpture, print, and paint to create personal, autobiographical and socio-political works. Using her Diné heritage as a source of inspiration, her practice draws attention to many key issues facing indigenous peoples. Themes have included issues of racism, misogyny, identity problems, poverty and abuse. Later works have concentrated more on personal issues and storytelling and touch on traditional, contemporary and imagined themes, including depictions of ceremonial life and ritual. Yazzie often collaborates with artists from other indigenous nations in order to raise further awareness and create shared experience through art practice....