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Article

María Antonia González-Arnal

(b Turmero, nr Maracay, Aug 22, 1919; d Caracas, Feb 20, 1993).

Venezuelan painter and sculptor. From 1943 to 1947 he studied drawing and painting in the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas, Caracas. He was a founder-member of the Taller Libre de Arte, taking part in its activities from 1949 to 1952. His paintings, always within a figurative framework, are marked by a pursuit of the magical and of indigenous roots. In his early work he was interested in the themes of roosters and flowers, using the surrounding environment as a source of inspiration. He expressed human, animal and vegetable existence in strong, warm colours (e.g. The Rooster, 1951; Caracas, Gal. A. N.). In 1952 Abreu moved to Europe, visiting Spain and Italy and living in Paris until 1962, when he returned to Venezuela. In Europe his contact with the Musée de l’Homme in Paris and with Surrealism produced a profound transformation in his work. He created his first Magical Objects...

Article

Colombian, 20th century, male.

Born 1904, in Suaita (Santander).

Painter, sculptor.

Acuna spent a period living in France, where he was a student of Henri Bouchard and Paul Landowsky, the sculptors. He began painting in the late 1920s, with still-lifes influenced by analytical cubism, sometimes bordering on abstraction. Although he adhered to the mode of muralism that came from Mexico, he simultaneously opposed all forms of academicism. As an art historian and critic, Acuna was one of the propagators of European forms of expression in Latin America. He first exhibited in ...

Article

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born in Buenos Aires.

Painter. Figures.

Amadeo may also have been a sculptor. He exhibited in Paris, during one or several periods in France, in 1913 and 1921 at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts.

Bayonne (Mus. Basque): Pelota Players...

Article

Monica E. Kupfer

(b Chilibre, Jan 16, 1929).

Panamanian sculptor and painter. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence (1949–1954) and at the Real Academia Catalana de Bellas Artes de San Jorge in Barcelona (1955–1960). On his return to Panama City he became the first professor of sculpture at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas from 1961 to 1964, and in 1964 he founded the Casa de la Escultura, a government-supported center for the teaching and promotion of the fine arts which he continued to direct after it was renamed the Centro de Arte y Cultura. Arboleda exhibited often and established his reputation as a young man with academic works such as Serenity (marble, 1950; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.). Most of his work was figurative, but he later developed a more symbolic style and produced his most original sculptures on indigenous themes, as with the bronze head of a Chocó Indian entitled ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1925, in Havana.

Painter, sculptor, engraver.

Arcay was a student at the academy of fine arts in Havana, where he won first prize for sculpture. He went to Paris in 1949. From 1950 to 1952, he was a student at Dewasne's and Pillet's studio for abstract art in Montparnasse. He began to exhibit at collective events in ...

Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Born 16 March 1913, in Rivera; died 27 September 2010.

Painter, sculptor.

Grupo Madi.

Arden Quin pursued classical studies in Brazil until 1930, taking long walks through the forests of Brazil and Argentina. From 1932, while studying law he began to study and practise painting. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1932, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, sculptor.

Op Art, Kinetic Art.

Asis was a student at the national school of fine arts in Buenos Aires between 1946 and 1950. He then took up a teaching post there. He settled in Paris in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1937, in Bragado.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Aznar studied in Buenos Aires, then exhibited in Paris at the 1965 Biennale, at the Salon de la Jeune Peinture and the Salon Comparaisons. His small figures, which are painted in a child-like style, place his work in the category of so-called Naïve art....

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Arezzo, Feb 2, 1916; d Buenos Aires, Feb 11, 2001).

Argentine sculptor, painter, printmaker and draughtsman of Italian birth. After completing his studies at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires in 1945, he went on study trips around Latin America (1945–6) and Europe (1949). He became a naturalized citizen of Argentina in 1947 and from 1949 he participated in the Salones Nacionales, winning various awards. He soon won a reputation as one of Argentina’s most outstanding sculptors, working in marble, bronze, wood, cement and clay. Torrent (marble, 1953; Buenos Aires, Mus. N. B.A.), a semi-abstract female nude composed of smooth curved planes, typifies one aspect of his work: his treatment of themes of fecundity, motherhood and the family, using rounded forms to which he attached a symbolic value. The titles associated with some of these material forms, such as Time (bronze, 1959; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), indicate the way they are meant to be read....

Article

Peruvian, 20th century, male.

Active in France in 1968.

Born 7 August 1945, in Lima.

Sculptor, draughtsman. Figures, birds.

Igor Balarin first studied architecture at the University of Valparaíso and then sculpture under the Argentinian sculptor Carlos de la Carcova. He works in metal, favouring dynamic, slender forms with silhouettes that suggest human beings and animals....

Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in Spain.

Born 1920.

Painter, sculptor.

Barcala's father was of Spanish origin and his mother was Italian. He lives and works in Madrid. He has shown his works in solo exhibitions, including a retrospective at the Fondación Telefónica, Madrid, in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 15 May 1891; died 17 November 1952, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, sculptor.

After studying at the school of fine arts in Buenos Aires under the supervision of Correa Morales, Bardas undertook a journey to Europe, during which he had the opportunity to visit the studios of Bourdelle and Rodin. In Mexico, he produced monuments erected in honour of Felipe Carrillo Pueto and Emiliano Zapata, as well as many busts of political and military figures....

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, Oct 27, 1945).

Colombian painter, sculptor and conceptual artist. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes of the University of Atlántico in Barranquilla, Colombia, from 1958 to 1960, and in Italy from 1966 to 1967 at the University of Perugia. In 1966, under the influence of Pop art, he made the first of a series of collages combining cut-outs of well-known individuals and comic strips with drawn elements. Two years later he added frosty effects and velvet flowers to his interpretations in black and red ink of figures with distorted bodies and the faces of film stars. In 1969 he began to present these in increasingly three-dimensional boxes or glass cases, accompanied by clouds of cotton wool, plastic figures and other additions that combined to make up fantastic or nostalgic scenes, dream-like and surrealist in appearance and tone.

Barrios was among those who introduced conceptual art to Colombia, for example by publishing in newspapers a series of ...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Torroella de Montgri, Catalonia, March 3, 1911; d Buenos Aires, Oct 8, 1966).

Argentine painter, printmaker, illustrator, sculptor and stage designer of Spanish Catalan birth. He arrived in Buenos Aires in 1913. Although his uncle, José Planas Casas (b Catalonia, 1900; d Argentina, 1960), taught him the rudiments of art, he was basically self-taught and began to exhibit his work in 1934. Synthesizing ideas from Zen philosophy, psychoanalysis and the theories on cosmic energy espoused by the Austrian psychologist Wilhelm Reich with his interests in automatism, poetry and painting, he found a creative sense of direction from an early age. He applied his methods not only to paintings but to stage designs, illustrations, collages, prints, polychrome sculptures and boxlike constructions; as a painter he worked both in tempera and in oil, and he also produced 72 murals.

In 1936 Batlle Planas inaugurated a Surrealist phase with a series entitled Paranoiac X-rays, followed by another group of pictures, Tibetan Series, populated by spectral figures related to works by Yves Tanguy. Between ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media, architect.

Bedel's works are metaphorical. In relief to varying degrees, he combines shiny metal with dull organic materials to create models that resemble towns, while privileging the evocation of the book form. He gives poetic expression to his pessimistic preoccupations concerning the future of humanity....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Painter.

Belavinha was influenced by the sculptor, Amilcar de Castro, and produced works using very sparse media.

Farias, Agnaldo: ‘Brésil: petit manuel d'instructions’ in Art Press n° 221, periodical, Paris, February 1997.

Article

Margarita González Arredondo

(b Calgary, Dec 9, 1930; d Mexico City, July 12, 1992).

Canadian painter, draughtsman and sculptor, active in Mexico. After studying in Canada at the Vancouver School of Art (1944–5) and Banff School of Fine Arts (1947–8) he moved to Mexico City, where he continued his training at the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura La Esmeralda (1948–9) and from 1950 worked as one of a team of assistants to David Alfaro Siqueiros. He began soon after to produce murals, such as The People Don’t Want War (acrylic, 2×2.5 m, 1952; Mexico City, Inst. Poli. N.) and Scenes from Don Quixote (acrylic on concrete, 1957; Cuernavaca), following these with many others in Mexico, the USA, Canada, Cuba and Nicaragua. He was also prolific as a draughtsman and easel painter, often working on a large scale, and to a lesser extent as a sculptor. Working in an Expressionist style and concentrating his attention on the human figure—sometimes contorted, flayed or treated in a robot-like manner—he treated biblical themes as well as more contemporary subjects such as the victims of Nazism or of the bombing of Hiroshima. In ...

Article

Jorge Glusberg

(Fernando )

(b Buenos Aires, July 12, 1937; d Buenos Aires, April 12, 2011).

Argentine sculptor, painter and architect. As an artist he was self-taught. Making reference to biological and chemical experiments to construct metaphors of the relationships between science and art, he began in 1968 to analyse the role of the individual in society through his first Animal Habitat, consisting of glass objects with water and fish, and Microzoos of ants, lizards, fish, tortoises, vegetables and honeycombs. At the Venice Biennale in 1970 he showed The Biotron (see Glusberg, p. 142), a cage for bees containing an artificial meadowland with 24 flowers that supplied a sugary solution; the bees could choose between the artificial device and the gardens that surrounded the Biennale. In later works he designed mazes for rats, ants, cockroaches and fish, as well as contraptions displaying the behaviour of plants (e.g. Fitotron, 1972, see Glusberg, p. 141), not to encourage scientific observation but to suggest to the spectator possible applications of the experiment....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, sculptor, architect.

In his relief works, Benedit makes scientific use of biology and physical chemistry, in parallel with human functioning in the contemporary world. His paintings, however, are intended either to be spontaneously narrative and autobiographical or to make ironic references to national events. These paintings or colour drawings can be compared with those of his compatriot and contemporary, Antonio Seguí....