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Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Liverpool; died 1978, in London.

Sculptor, painter, printer. Portraits, cityscapes, still-lifes.

Arnold Auerbach took art classes at the Liverpool Institute as a boy before going on to study at the Liverpool School of Art. He also studied in Paris and in Switzerland. He was enlisted during World War I, but was invalided out of the army in ...

Article

Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, video artist, film producer. Comic strips.

Jacques Charlier lives and works in Liège. In 1982 he had La route de l'art published in comic strip form by the publishers Gewad and Moretti in Ghent. He draws together the activities of painting, sculpture, video, films and comic strips in order to deal with one common theme: art and the world of art, highlighting its contradictions and paradoxes. In an exhibition of photographs of reports by the Belgian organisation STP, ...

Article

Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1952, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter.

Jean-Marc Debenedetti started out as a poet and, as such, was a co-founder of the literary review Soror (1972-1975) and, from 1979 to 1986, the founder-editor of a further review, Ellébore. He makes no real distinction between his activities as a poet and as a sculptor. His sculptures are essentially anthropomorphic, ranging in style from the figurative to the abstract. He has exhibited since ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1914, in Cuba; died 2002.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Julio Girona travelled in France and studied sculpture with Maillol before moving to the USA. He is a painter, writer, journalist and sculptor. Girona incorporates into his vast canvases words which play an active role in the composition. Signs suggestive of graffiti and almost abstract, break through richly worked almost monochrome surfaces that have been painted over and over....

Article

Dutch, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1968, in Volkel.

Sculptor of assemblages, installation artist, draughtsman, publisher.

Conceptual Art.

Since 1986 Mark Manders has considered his works to be self-portraits, buildings inhabited by himself or 'self-portrait dwellings'. At exhibitions he first fits out the allocated space, working on all the surfaces, walls and floor. Then, in this 'container-environment', he proceeds to install significant elements from each of his creations; these elements are joined by assemblage, connections or various links. To this majority of pre-existing elements, which he has deliberately selected in order to reunite them, and which are a testimonial of his relationship with the outside world, he adds others that he has made himself, and which are generally in the schematic image of a living creature, human or animal, and spring in outline from his inner world....

Article

Nando  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1912, in Venice.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor. Figures, nudes.

Nando gave up journalism in 1950 to devote his time to the fine arts; he went on to exhibit solo from 1951, both in Italy (notably at the Galleria del Naviglio in Milan) and in Paris. He went through an initial abstract period when he was particularly concerned to integrate mural reliefs, mobiles and components made of wood and rope into an architectural whole. Later he abandoned abstraction in favour of figurative compositions, working from models whose erotic poses were such that he was at one point charged with indecency. His paintings, not least those on canvas or mounted on canvas with an accompanying text, exhibit the same preoccupation. His latter sculptures are predominantly in terracotta but sometimes in bronze....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1 May 1885, in Neerwinden; died 31 October 1922, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, engraver.

Dadaism.

Clément Pansaers was known above all for his poetical activity in the Dada movement. In 1917 he founded the journal Résurrection, which ran for five issues until ...

Article

Canadian First Nations, 20th century, male. OBC (Order of British Columbia).

Born 12 January 1920, in the Queen Charlotte Islands (British Columbia); died 13 March 1998.

Sculptor, goldsmith, jewelry-maker, screen-printer, painter, and draughtsman.

Bill Reid was the son of a Haida First Nation mother, Sophie Gladstone Reid, of the Raven/Wolf clan, and an American father, William Ronald Reid. He was to become a leading expert on Haida art and culture and is credited with the modern resurgence of Haida carving, a skill which he had learnt from his maternal grandfather. His grandfather had himself received training from Charles Edenshaw, a Haida master carver of an earlier generation....

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Como; died 1957, in Como.

Painter, sculptor, decorative artist.

MAC (Movimento Arte Concreta).

Manlio Rho did various jobs in Como and in Lombardy, including that of journalist. He was close to the Como group and, in particular, to Giuseppe Terragni, Pietro Lingero, Alberto Sartoris and the painter Mario Radice. In ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich) [Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...

Article

Latvian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 3 November 1874, in Rujiena; died 1954.

Painter, sculptor, engraver (etching), book designer.

Rukis (The Gnome).

Gustavs Skilters studied at the Stieglitz Institute in St Petersburg and was at that time he was a member of Rukis , an association of Latvian artists and art students in the capital that promoted realism and national identity through art. He obtained a study grant from the Institute, which enabled him to visit Paris, where he received advice from Rodin. From ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1940, in St Ives, Cornwall.

Book artist, painter, sculptor.

The son of critic Adrian Stokes, Telfer Stokes studied painting at the Slade School of Fine Art in London. In 1962 he received a postgraduate fellowship at the Brooklyn Museum.

Throughout the 1960s Stokes exhibited paintings although he often mixed media in his works, combining pigment with fibre glass and lighting. In ...

Article

Indian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 June 1928, in Simla.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor.

After time spent as a political agitator, an author of children’s books and a journalist, Swaminathan dedicated himself to drawing and painting, studying first of all at the Delhi Polytechnic, and then, in ...

Article

Adrian Lewis

(b Dundee, Jan 11, 1922; d London, Nov 15, 2012).

Scottish sculptor, painter and printmaker. He worked as an illustrator for a national periodical publisher in Dundee (1939–41) before wartime service in the RAF. He then studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1946 to 1948 before spending two years in Paris. On his return to London he shared a studio with Eduardo Paolozzi, with whom he exhibited at the Hanover Gallery in 1950. Turnbull’s reputation grew with the generation of British sculptors acclaimed at the Venice Biennale of 1952. His interest in the interrelationship of blunt, self-evident components differed significantly, however, from the more psychological approach of his co-exhibitor in Venice, Reg Butler, and even, despite certain similarities and their close friendship, the metamorphic interests of Paolozzi. In the early 1950s Turnbull was involved with the Independent Group at the ICA, whose lectures on recent scientific, sociological and philosophical ideas interested Turnbull.

Turnbull’s early work used simple linear elements as basic signs, often implying play and movement. These were followed by paintings in which the motion of groups of figures was suggested by gestural line. The motif of the head as an object became predominant in the mid-1950s, for example in works entitled ...

Article

Richard Cork

British artistic and literary movement, founded in 1914 by the editor of Blast magazine, Wyndham Lewis, and members of the Rebel Art Centre . It encompassed not only painting, drawing and printmaking but also the sculpture of Henri Gaudier-Brzeska and Jacob Epstein and the photographs of Alvin Langdon Coburn. Notable literary allies were Ezra Pound, who coined the term Vorticism early in 1914, and T. S. Eliot. T. E. Hulme’s articles in The New Age helped to create a climate favourable to the reception of Vorticist ideas.

The arrival of Vorticism was announced, with great gusto and militant defiance, in a manifesto published in the first issue of Blast magazine, which also included work by Edward Wadsworth, Frederick Etchells, William Roberts and Jacob Epstein. Dated June 1914 but issued a month later, this puce-covered journal set out to demonstrate the vigour of an audacious new movement in British art. Vorticism was seen by Lewis as an independent alternative to Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. With the help of ...

Article

Mayching Kao

[ Yang Yingfeng ; Yang Yuyu ]

(b Yilan, Taiwan, Dec 4, 1926).

Chinese sculptor and painter . He studied architecture, sculpture and painting in Tokyo, Beijing, Taipei and Rome. In a long and productive career as art editor, teacher and artist, Yang won critical acclaim as the foremost sculptor and landscape architect in Taiwan, receiving numerous prestigious commissions for sculpture and environmental design in Taiwan and abroad. Yang’s artistic development reflected the crystallization of his personal experience in the fast-changing modern world and his study of Chinese and Western art. His art evolved from realism in the 1950s to semi-abstraction in the early 1960s, when modern art movements emerged in Taiwan. Deeply influenced by Chinese philosophical concepts of the harmony of man and nature as well as the unity of life and art, Yang turned to abstraction in the late 1960s. His monumental works in cast bronze and stainless steel attempted to capture the life force of nature and the changing relationship of solids and voids within art and its environment....