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[Pieter]

(b Antwerp, c. 1526–28; d Antwerp, 1584).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, engraver and publisher. He was the son of the sculptor Balten Janszoon de Costere (fl 1524). In 1550 he became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp and in 1569 its dean. Primarily on the authority of van Mander, Baltens was long considered to be an inferior imitator of Bruegel family, §1 the elder. Baltens’s best-known work, the signed St Martin’s Day Kermis (e.g. versions Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), was formerly thought to be a free copy after Bruegel’s treatment of the subject, known through an engraving and the Gift of St Martin, a fragment on cloth (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.). The relationship between Baltens and Bruegel is, however, more complicated. In 1551 they collaborated on an altarpiece (destr.) for the Mechelen Glovemakers. Baltens’s other works, for example the Ecce homo (Antwerp, Kon. Acad. S. Kst.), reveal that the two artists were closely associated: a group from the ...

Article

Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Mechelen, 1545; d Antwerp, 1608).

Flemish painter, engraver and draughtsman. His identity is confused: it is known that a painter called Pieter van der Borcht worked in Mechelen for the Antwerp publisher Christoph Plantin from 1564 onwards. From 1552 until at least 1592 this artist—referred to as Pieter van der Borcht IV by Hollstein and as Pieter van der Borcht II by Bénézit—made etchings as well as woodcuts with the inscription fecit petrus van der borcht.

In addition, there was a Pieter van der Borcht active in Mechelen, who, after 1552, made woodcuts which he signed p.b. Thus, either one artist had a steady output of woodcuts and etchings over a long career (1552–c. 1600) or there were a number of artists with the same name. The second hypothesis seems the more likely. It is supported by other facts. In 1580 a ‘Pieter Verborcht, painter’ became a master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp, of which he served as dean in ...

Article

Marianne Grivel

(fl 1558–74).

French painter, draughtsman, print publisher and possibly engraver. He was a painter working in Orléans and published about 20 prints, dated between 1558 and 1574, which he may have engraved himself. He may have gained his knowledge of the art of the School of Fontainebleau from Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (i), who was at one point established in Orléans. It is possible, however, that he worked at the château of Fontainebleau, since his engraving the Masquerade of Persepolis is an interpretation of a painting by Francesco Primaticcio in the chamber of the Duchesse d’Etampes there. Chartier also published and possibly engraved the same artist’s Ulysses Recognized by his Dog, the 34th picture in the Galerie d’Ulysse at Fontainebleau. Original prints by him, such as Blazons of Virtue and the Naked Man Walking on Hot Coals, are typical of the style of Fontainebleau and representative of provincial French Mannerism in their almost excessive and somewhat angular refinement....

Article

E. S. Welch

(fl Milan, 1430–6).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was one of a large family of painters and illuminators working in Milan in the 15th century. He appears frequently in the registers of the building works of the city’s cathedral and as a creditor of the influential Borromeo family. First recorded in 1430 as the painter of two altarpieces for the cathedral, he is mentioned again in 1433 and 1444 for the gilding of sculpture and in 1442, 1446 and 1448 for further paintings. None of these works survives.

In 1445 and 1446 Giovanni was paid by Vitaliano Borromeo for the illumination of family imprese. However, Cipriani has suggested that these payments were for a group of decorated diplomas (Milan, Trivulziana) granted to the Borromeo family in 1445, and on this basis says that the designs may be by the much better-known Master of the Vitae Imperatorum. A miniature of Filippo Maria Visconti in Galessio da Correggio’s ...

Article

[Hendrik]

(b Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], Jan or Feb 1558; d Haarlem, Jan 1, 1617).

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker, print publisher and painter. He was an important artist of the transitional period between the late 16th century and the early 17th, when the conception of art in the northern Netherlands was gradually changing. Goltzius was initially an exponent of Mannerism, with its strong idealization of subject and form. Together with the other two well-known Dutch Mannerists, Karel van Mander I and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, he introduced the complex compositional schemes and exaggeratedly contorted figures of Bartholomäus Spranger to the northern Netherlands. These three artists are also supposed to have established an academy in Haarlem in the mid-1580s, but virtually nothing is known about this project. In 1590 Goltzius travelled to Italy, thereafter abandoning Spranger as a model and developing a late Renaissance style based on a broadly academic and classicizing approach. Later still, his art reflected the growing interest in naturalism that emerged in the northern Netherlands from ...

Article

W. Le Loup

(b Venlo, Oct 30, 1526; d Bruges, March 2, 1583).

Flemish humanist, printmaker, publisher, painter and numismatist. He was the son of Rutger den Meeler (Rutger van Weertsburg) and Catherina Goltzius, whose family name was taken by her husband. After studying in Venlo, Hubertus was sent to Luik (Liège) to the academy of Lambert Lombard, to whom he was apprenticed until 1546. He then moved to Antwerp, where he became a member of the Guild of St Luke and took on Willem Smout as his pupil. Before 1550 Goltzius married Elisabeth Verhulst Bessemers, a painter from Mechelen, with whom he had four sons and three daughters. Her sister Mayken Verhulst was the second wife of Pieter Coecke van Aelst, which brought Goltzius into artistic circles. Goltzius was active in Antwerp as a painter and antiques dealer, but the only painting that can be attributed to him with certainty is the Last Judgement (1557) for the town hall at Venlo. In Antwerp he was introduced by his friends to prominent numismatists, for whom he made drawings of coins and began a system of their classification. For the same purpose Goltzius undertook a study trip in ...

Article

E. S. Welch

(fl 1450–75).

Italian painter. A minor but prolific Milanese artist, he first appears as a creditor of the Borromeo family in Milan in 1450 and 1451. The following year, several letters addressed to Duke Francesco Sforza (reg 1450–66) show him as painter primarily of pennants and horse trappings. Moretti continued to work for the Sforza family during the 1450s. In 1462, however, he was banished from Milan for writing a defamatory letter about the wife of the court physician Cristoforo da Soncino.

Documents after 1463 indicate that the artist then moved into the nearby region of Piedmont, where he painted coats of arms and the communal tower in Turin. In 1467 he decorated a chapel in Casale Monferrato for William VI, Margrave of Monferrat (reg 1464–83), and three years later he provided an altarpiece for S Marco, Vercelli. He left incomplete fresco decorations in this same church when he returned to Milan in ...

Article

(b Bergen-Mons, Henegouwen, c. 1465; d Bruges, Jan 1529).

South Netherlandish painter. He probably came into contact with Simon Marmion, the renowned painter and book illuminator from Valenciennes, via Jacquemart Pilavaine, a publisher and illuminator in his native Bergen. Provoost married Marmion’s widow, Jeanne de Quaroube, before 1491, and it is thus assumed that Marmion was his teacher. In 1493 Provoost moved to Antwerp, a promising town for artists, where he registered as a master in the Guild of St Luke, but in 1494 he travelled to Bruges. He became a citizen there and soon played an important part in the painters’ guild. In 1506 Maximiliaen Frans (1490–1547) was his pupil. Provoost received commissions for decorative work from the town council and church authorities in 1509, 1513 and 1520, the year of the Triumphal Entry of Charles V into Bruges, for which he worked on the decorations. He returned to Antwerp the same year to meet Albrecht Dürer, who may have drawn his portrait. Dürer visited Bruges in ...

Article

Jürgen Zimmer

(b c. 1532; d c. 1592–3).

German draughtsman, publisher, wood-engraver and painter. In 1548 he published a textbook of writing instruction and in 1551 one on arithmetic. In 1560–63 he made a model of Augsburg (Augsburg, Maximilianmus.) and in 1563 a map of the city, which was used in simplified form in the monumental Civitates orbis terrarum (1572–1618) by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg (fl c. 1560–c. 1590/94). His Augsburger Meilenscheibe (c. 1565, frequently reissued), a disc with a plan of Augsburg at the centre, with lists of towns and distances radiating from it, was a practical instrument for travellers from and to the most important trade and cultural centre of 16th-century central Europe and is to be seen in close conjunction with the Reissbüchlein (Augsburg, 1563) by Jörg Gail.

Rogel reproduced the works of several artists in woodcuts, for example the Geometria et perspectiva (Augsburg, 1567...