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Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Mexico City, June 27, 1943).

Mexican painter, printmaker, performance artist, writer, teacher and publisher. He qualified as a printmaker at a very early age, then as a painter and engraver under the tutelage of several masters, among whom the most influential on his life was José Chávez Morado. Although he at first worked with traditional media, he possessed a constantly innovative and critical attitude and experimented with performances, installations, happenings, correspondence and media art, as well as writing, lecturing and publishing on such themes as artistic experimentation, cultural promotion, professional management for artists, collective mural painting and the publishing process. From 1968 to 1972 Ehrenberg lived in England where, with the architect Martha Hellion and the critic and historian David Mayor, he founded the Beau Geste Press/Libro Acción Libre in Devon, to propagate the work of artists involved with the Fluxus movement of the 1970s. He was also instrumental in the rise of many artistic groups, workshops and small publishing houses, such as ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941.

Painter, draughtsman.

Carlos Fajardo was one of the founder members of the Rex group inspired by Wesley Duke Lee in São Paulo around 1965. The group's work centred around a gallery and a journal, and was outside the traditional art circuit. Fajardo shared the effervescence characterising this period of Brazilian art and challenging the constraints and censorship of the dictatorial regime. Around ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1914, in Cuba; died 2002.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Julio Girona travelled in France and studied sculpture with Maillol before moving to the USA. He is a painter, writer, journalist and sculptor. Girona incorporates into his vast canvases words which play an active role in the composition. Signs suggestive of graffiti and almost abstract, break through richly worked almost monochrome surfaces that have been painted over and over....

Article

Mexican, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in San Pedro de las Colonias (Coahuila).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, fresco artist.

In 1922, with Rivera and Siqueiros, Xavier Guerrero founded the journal El Machete. In 1929 he travelled around Europe and settled in the USSR, returning to Mexico in 1937...

Article

Iracema  

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 1 February 1924, in São Paulo.

Painter. Landscapes.

Iracema Arditti originally worked in a number of different occupations including typist, journalist and air hostess. She was interested in the popular arts and encouraged naive painters she knew, before becoming a painter herself. Arditti became well known with the return of figurative expression in the 1960s....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1957, in Fortaleza; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman, installation artist.

José Leonilson was influenced by the work of Arthur Bispo do Rosario. His work is a personal account, a kind of private journal bringing together acrylic paintings and drawings on unstretched canvas, embroidery and sewn-on objects but also abstract signs, some with symbolic overtones. His work recounts the experiences, questions and concerns of the artist, who died of AIDS. José Leonilson took part in collective exhibitions. His work was shown at the Nouvelle Biennale, Paris (...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1916, in Havana.

Painter (gouache), engraver, draughtsman. Figures.

Leonel López-Nussa studied at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana in 1934. As well as a painter, he was also a journalist and novelist. In 1941 he was in Mexico, in ...

Article

Cuban, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Cienfuegos.

Painter.

Aldo Menendez studied at the school of fine arts in Cienfuegos and at the Cuban national art school. He produced drawings for the journal Revolution and Culture ( Revolución y Cultura). He has taken part in collective exhibitions, notably in the ...

Article

Type of art that exaggerates the physical characteristics of its figures for comedic or critical effect. Caricature has been used throughout the world. For more on its practice in the Western world see Caricature.

The first periodical released in New Spain was La Gazeta de México y Noticias de la Nueva España, founded in 1722 and directed by Juan Ignacio Castorena y Ursúa, Bishop of Yucatán (1688–1733). Six issues were produced, but the publication was suspended due to unfair criticism. In 1784, Manuel Antonio Valdez Murguía (1742–1814) resumed the work previously done by the bishop of Yucatán and expanded it with scientific news, thus strengthening the publication. As a result, the Spanish Crown granted official support to Gazeta de México in 1784, though it did not have illustrations or caricatures. The caricatures appeared on flyers that were pasted in the city centers. It is important to notice though that the concept of caricature developed slowly, and in this period the term is used to refer to the drawings that demystified royal figures and authorities through irony. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1933, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, art critic.

After law studies and a few years in journalism, Noé worked in the painter Horacio Butler's studio. The French government awarded him a grant to spend a period in Paris in 1961. In ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Recife, Dec 19, 1899; d Recife, Jun 5, 1970).

Brazilian painter, poet, and publisher. He became interested in painting while living in Paris between 1911 and 1914. On his return to Brazil he lived first in Rio de Janeiro and then, from 1918 onward, in Recife. There he prepared a series of watercolors based on indigenous themes, such as the Birth of Mani (1921; U. São Paulo, Mus. A. Contemp.), which were exhibited in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo in 1920–1921. His modernist reworking of indigenous aesthetics challenged Parisian avant-garde primitivism and Brazilian academic aesthetics. In 1922 he took part in the Semana de Arte Moderna in São Paulo and returned to Europe, establishing a studio in Paris, where he illustrated P. L. Duchartre’s Légendes, croyances, et talismans des indiens de l’Amazonie (Paris, 1923). From 1922 to 1957 he alternated his residency between Paris and Brazil. In 1930 he and the French poet and critic Géo-Charles (...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Santa Maria do Rio Grande do Sul, June 21, 1920; d Rio de Janeiro, Apr 28, 2001).

Brazilian draughtsman, engraver and painter. At the age of 15 he began publishing illustrations in the newspapers of his native state. In 1940 he went to live in São Paulo, where he began his career as a painter. He joined the Família Artística Paulista (a group founded in 1937, typical of the second phase of Brazilian Modernism) and allowed his work to be influenced by a vivid, socially committed Expressionism, often using drawing and engraving. Between 1944 and 1945 he fought in Italy as a soldier in the Brazilian Expeditionary Force and produced rapid but undramatic drawings of the war. During a subsequent stay in Paris from 1947 to 1950 he developed his characteristic style under the influence of late Cubism and afterwards of Giorgio Morandi. On his return to Brazil, from 1950 to 1956 he helped to create the local Engraving Club in Porto Alegre; in its artistic aims and political stance he promoted a polemical form of realism devoted to landscape, human types and scenes of the still rural south. He returned to painting only on settling in Rio de Janeiro in ...

Article

Colombian, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Circasia.

Painter. Figure compositions, local scenes.

Valencia received his training in Bogotá where he was later to found the journal Plastica, which was published for several years. He lives and works in Bogotá.

Having started out as a figurative painter of compositions with figures typical of South American life, his work has evolved, particularly following several stays in Europe, notably in Germany, and today he tends towards a certain abstraction....