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Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1863, in Belleville.

Painter.

Director of the School of Commercial Arts and editor of various publications on the decorative arts. In 1909, he published a collection of Monograms ( Monogrammes) composed and drawn by himself.

Article

Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 17 November 1847, in Paris; died 5 April 1885, in Paris.

Draughtsman.

A noted poster artist, and brother of Alfred Choubrac. Léon was self-taught, and began his career contributing humourous drawings to the journal Titi, the Chat Noir and a booklet entitled ...

Article

Annette Faber

(fl Leipzig, 1592; d after 1617).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. In 1592 he was granted the freedom of Leipzig, where he worked mainly as an illustrator for the publisher Henning Gross. He specialized in views and plans of towns, including Moscow, Wrocław, Venice, Istanbul and Jerusalem. His etchings illustrated the Persianische Reise (Leipzig, 1609) by ...

Article

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Clamart.

Painter. Scenes with figures, figures.

Nouvelle Figuration.

Philippe Huart was originally an illustrator and graphic designer for literary publishers and record companies. Since 1991 he has devoted himself to painting. His figurative representations are like superimposed catalogues of images in which words are integrated and have a readable and smooth appearance. They echo sources close to Pop Art or Narrative Figuration. He produces series of works: faces, animal portraits and various fragments of reality such as mouths, pills, etc. Huart has taken part in collective exhibitions such as: the Salon de la Jeune Peinture, Paris, ...

Article

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1880, in Achim near Bremen; died April 1954, in Darmstadt.

Printer, typographer, draughtsman, graphic designer. Decorative motifs.

Christian Heinrich Kleukens was the brother of Friedrich Wilhelm Kleukens, and was taught by him. He worked with him from 1907...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Born 1906, in Perm.

Painter, illustrator, poster artist.

Valentin Kurdov trained at the school of fine art in Petrograd (now St Petersburg). He collaborated on youth journals and produced posters. Specifically an illustrator, he illustrated Where Crayfish Spend Winter by Bianky and is known for his album ...

Article

Australian, 20th century, male.

Born 1901, in Annandale, Sydney; died 1981.

Painter. Landscapes, urban landscapes.

George Feather Lawrence served an apprenticeship in the art department of commercial printers, John Sands & Co, then at Smith and Julius commercial art studios. He took classes at the Julian Ashton Art School in the 1920s and in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 2 October 1865, in Münster; died 8 October 1937, in Raron (Valais, Switzerland).

Painter (including glass), pastellist, illustrator, draughtsman, decorative designer, graphic designer, writer, publisher.

Melchior Lechter was initially apprenticed to a painter of cartoons for stained-glass windows in Münster, before enrolling at the Hochschule der Künste, Berlin in ...

Article

Juliann Wolfgram

[Baiō]

(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(b Lisbon, May 19, 1921).

Portuguese painter, printer, tapestry designer and illustrator. He studied architecture and painting, without completing either course, at the Escola Superior de Belas Artes in Lisbon. His early works show an affinity with Neo-Realism in their melancholic atmosphere and ironic depiction of daily life in Lisbon. This tendency was tempered by his love of Bonnard and interest in the abstract qualities of colour and light. A sojourn in London (1962–4) marked the beginning of a new phase in which a revivalism deriving from the influence of British Pop art overlaid his own innate nostalgic lyricism. The canvases treated with photosensitive emulsion of the late 1960s and early 1970s are of a greater eroticism and violence, and were followed by paintings on intimist themes with a local flavour and an emphasis on light.

M. T. Chicó, A. Vieira Santos and J.-A. Fraņca: Diccionário universal da pintura, 3 (Lisbon, 1973)

Article

Gode Krämer and Roberto Pontual

German family of painters, draughtsmen, and engravers. (1) Georg Philipp Rugendas I, an esteemed painter and graphic artist in Augsburg, established a print publishing house there in 1735. His sons Georg Philipp Rugendas II (1701–74), Christian Rugendas (1708–81), and Jeremias Gottlob Rugendas (1710–72) helped with this business, as did their descendants, including Georg Philipp II’s grandson, the engraver Johann Lorenz Rugendas II (1775–1826). (2) Johann Moritz Rugendas, the son of Johann Lorenz II, was noted particularly for his drawings and paintings of Brazil and other Latin American countries.

(b Augsburg, Nov 27, 1666; d Augsburg, May 9, 1742).

His father, a watchmaker, trained him in copper engraving, but after a fistula on his right hand forced him to abandon this he was apprenticed (...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich) [Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...

Article

Ioana Vlasiu

(b Craiova, Aug 13, 1877; d Bucharest, Aug 4, 1953).

Romanian painter, illustrator, critic and teacher. He began his artistic training in a printer’s workshop in Craiova, then worked in a lithographic workshop in Düsseldorf (1898–9); from 1900 to 1905 he studied at the Fine Arts School in Bucharest. He rapidly became a well-known illustrator for newspapers and journals, notable for his polemical spirit, his conciseness and his geometrical and energetic graphic style. He also exhibited paintings in Bucharest at the official Salon and at the exhibitions of the association Tinerimea Artistică (The young artists) (e.g. A Halt, 1912; Bucharest, N. Mus. A.), and in 1916 he began to write art criticism. He participated in the exhibitions of the Arta Română association (1921–4) and with Ştefan Dimitrescu (1886–1933), Nicolae Tonitza (1886–1940) and the sculptor Oscar Han (1891–1976) created the Group of Four (1925–33), whose objective was to promote modern art in Romania. Şirato’s best-known paintings during this period featured Romanian peasants, as in ...

Article

Adrian Lewis

(b Dundee, Jan 11, 1922; d London, Nov 15, 2012).

Scottish sculptor, painter and printmaker. He worked as an illustrator for a national periodical publisher in Dundee (1939–41) before wartime service in the RAF. He then studied at the Slade School of Fine Art, London, from 1946 to 1948 before spending two years in Paris. On his return to London he shared a studio with Eduardo Paolozzi, with whom he exhibited at the Hanover Gallery in 1950. Turnbull’s reputation grew with the generation of British sculptors acclaimed at the Venice Biennale of 1952. His interest in the interrelationship of blunt, self-evident components differed significantly, however, from the more psychological approach of his co-exhibitor in Venice, Reg Butler, and even, despite certain similarities and their close friendship, the metamorphic interests of Paolozzi. In the early 1950s Turnbull was involved with the Independent Group at the ICA, whose lectures on recent scientific, sociological and philosophical ideas interested Turnbull.

Turnbull’s early work used simple linear elements as basic signs, often implying play and movement. These were followed by paintings in which the motion of groups of figures was suggested by gestural line. The motif of the head as an object became predominant in the mid-1950s, for example in works entitled ...