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Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...

Article

Nathalie Volle

(b Laon, March 5, 1743; d Paris, March 1, 1811).

French painter and draughtsman. In 1764 he entered the studio of Noël Hallé, whose work strongly influenced his early paintings. Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), with which he won the Prix de Rome in 1767, is a brilliant exercise in the grand academic style as conceived by the followers of François Boucher. After a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his training at the Académie de France in Rome from 1771 to 1774. Although he impressed the then director of the Académie, Charles-Joseph Natoire, and formed friendships with the painters François-Guillaume Ménageot, François-André Vincent and Joseph-Benoît Suvée and the architects Pierre-Adrien Pâris and Jean-Jacques-Marie Huvé (1742–1808), his artistic activity during his years in Rome is obscure. A number of spectacular drawings in red chalk, such as those of the Villa d’Este, Tivoli (Orléans, Mus. B.-A.) and the Villa Colonna and Villa Negroni...

Article

(b Falun, April 11, 1860; d Stockholm, May 7, 1946).

Swedish architect, draughtsman and painter. After studying at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and the Kungliga Akademien för de fria Konsterna (1878–84), with his artist-wife Anna Boberg (b 1864) he made extensive journeys in Italy, France, Spain and the rest of the Mediterranean region, also visiting Britain. Early on he was impressed by the work of H. H. Richardson, and this was reinforced by his visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) and to the studio of Louis Sullivan. Boberg’s highly personal style amalgamated these American influences with impressions from Italy, Spain and North Africa, and his ornamentation in particular is connected both to Sullivan and to the Moorish and Byzantine. Gävle Fire Station (1890) shows clearly the Richardsonian use of the Romanesque with round-arched doorways in heavy granite, picturesque asymmetry and colonette motifs. Industrial buildings for the Stockholm Gas and Electricity Works in the 1890s demonstrate Boberg’s effective use of colourful brick and stone. The surviving portal of an electricity station (destr.) in central Stockholm is decorated by ornamentation of electric light-bulbs with a Sullivanesque sharpness, and postal motifs of a similar nature adorn the Central Post Office (...

Article

Dewey F. Mosby

(b Paris, May 23, 1810; d Paris, March 1860).

French painter and draughtsman. His father was the architect Pierre-Anne Dedreux (1788–1849); Alfred’s sister, Louise-Marie Becq de Fouquières (1825–92), was also an artist. His uncle, Pierre-Joseph Dedreux-Dorcy (1789–1874), a painter and intimate friend of Gericault, took Dedreux frequently to the atelier of Gericault whose choice of subjects, especially horses, had a lasting influence on him. During the 1820s he studied with Léon Cogniet, although his early style was more influenced by the work of Stubbs, Morland, Constable and Landseer, exposure to which probably came through Gericault and the painter Eugène Lami who lived in London in the mid-1820s.

Dedreux’s stylistic development can be traced from 1830 with the White Stallion (exh. Salon 1831; sold London, Sotheby’s, 31 March 1965, lot 87), which recalls both the work of Gericault and Stubbs’s Horse Attacked by a Lion (1770; New Haven, CT, Yale U. A.G.). This style remained unchanged in the ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Paris, March 20, 1808; d Chaville, Seine-et-Oise, July 14, 1888).

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, 1868–71).

Etex failed three times to win the Prix de Rome, but in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1830 his Republican sympathies gained him a government scholarship that enabled him to spend two years in Rome. There he sculpted the intensely tragic group Cain and his Children Cursed by God, the plaster version of which (Paris, Hôp. Salpêtrière) was one of the great successes of the 1833 Paris Salon. During this period Etex asserted the Republican views that were to earn him the distrust of many of his fellow artists and of the establishment but also gain him the support of the influential critic and politician Adolphe Thiers. He behaved in Romantic fashion as a misunderstood artist, but nevertheless displayed a remarkable tenacity in forwarding his pet projects, including, for instance, schemes for sculptures representing ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 25 December 1771, in London; died 1843, in Devon, in a lunatic asylum.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views.

Romanticism.

Joseph Michael Gandy studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Art. He was sent on a study trip to Rome but returned to London in ...

Article

Elisabeth Cederstrøm

(b Copenhagen, Feb 13, 1818; d Paris, Jan 10, 1875).

Danish painter. He had originally wanted to be a sailor, but abandoned this ambition because of bad eyesight. Similarly, he later gave up training as a shipbuilder, deciding instead to become a marine painter. In 1838 he entered the Akademi for de Skonne Kunster in Copenhagen. He received private tuition from C. W. Eckersberg, and was one of several of his pupils who devoted themselves to marine painting. He exhibited for the first time in 1840, provoking an immediate response from the public. His early pictures followed the style of Eckersberg’s marine paintings, which are characterized by a heightened calm and clear colour, but Melbye soon moved towards a more international, Romantic style.

Melbye went on several voyages in order to study the sea at close range; one of his major works, Eddystone Lighthouse (1846; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst), resulted from a voyage to Morocco. In the painting an evocative atmosphere is created by the interplay between dramatic waves and a threatening sky. The lighthouse is a fixed point in the troubled seas. His studies of the sea, together with his thorough knowledge of shipbuilding, enabled him to produce a large number of paintings, many of them on a large scale. Melbye’s dramatic compositions and choice of colours were close to the genre style of painters of the Düsseldorf school, such as Johann Peter Hasenclever and Ludwig Knaus. From ...

Article

Patricia G. Berman

Term that suggests the merging of national boundaries and the indigenous ‘ethnic essence’ of a nation rather than a particular school or style. National Romanticism was a mid- and late 19th-century coalescence of two potent ideologies and was linked to the struggle for political legitimacy for a circumscribed geographic region. Its tenet was that the indigenous arts, history, music and folk traditions of a nation contributed to the spiritual and political survival of its people. It was manifest in the arts of those countries or regions of northern and central Europe, such as Scandinavia and Germany, that were once subject to foreign domination or had experienced recent unification. Thus, National Romanticism arose in response to a sense of intrusive internationalism that was perceived to weaken a sense of unity within a single geographic group. With its sources in German Romantic philosophy, this theoretical movement was introduced in the mid-19th century to Denmark through the writings of ...

Article

Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...

Article

Polish, 19th century, male.

Born 1789, in Cracow; died 1861, in Cracow.

Painter, engraver (burin), architect.

Radvanski studied at Cracow academy and engraved portraits and views; he belonged to the Polish romantic school.

Article

Ye. I. Kirichenko

( Lavrent’yevitch )

(b St Petersburg, 1787; d St Petersburg, 1855).

Russian painter and architect. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts (1802–7) under Grigory Ugryumov, for whom he later worked as an assistant (1807–12). His work, which shows his teacher’s influence, explores biblical, mythological and historical themes, as in the Killing of Patriarch Germogen the St Peter Released from Prison, for which he was made an academician (1815). His landscapes and particularly his portraits are in the Romantic style. In 1813, inspired by a competition to build a church in Moscow to commemorate Russia’s deliverance from the French invasion, he retrained as an architect and submitted the winning entry. Work on Vitberg’s design for the church of Christ the Redeemer (Khram Khrista Spasitelya) began in 1825, but was abandoned the following year. The victim of an intrigue, he was disgraced and exiled to Vyatka. His work in the town includes the monumental gates (...