1-20 of 59 results  for:

  • The Americas x
  • Twentieth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American silversmiths, active in New York. The company was founded by the silversmith Isaac Marquand in 1810, and traded as Marquand & Co. In 1839 the company was bought by Henry Ball, Erasus Tompkins and William Black, and was known as Ball, Tompkins & Black until 1851, when it became Ball, Black & Company. In ...

Article

Francis Summers

(b Philadelphia, Dec 17, 1960).

American sculptor, active in England. He obtained a BFA from Tyler School of Art, Philadelphia, PA, and an MFA from Goldsmiths’ College, London, in 1988. Exploring his interest in the government of behaviour by social constraint, he first used clothes and hair as materials before turning to animal remains and casts of human organs for his increasingly unsettling work. His The Cat and the Dog (1995; London, Saatchi Gal., see 1996 exh. cat., p. 4) consists of two skinned animal hides with perfectly reconstructed heads and feet. Described by the artist as frozen smiles, the animal objects act as abstract surrogates for socially repressed bestial tendencies. Be Your Dog (1997; see 1998 exh. cat., p. 10), consisting of scalped dog ears mounted on a wall as an invitation to wear them, illustrates this theme even more forcefully. Other works by Baseman represent human body parts. Muscle (1997...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media, architect.

Bedel's works are metaphorical. In relief to varying degrees, he combines shiny metal with dull organic materials to create models that resemble towns, while privileging the evocation of the book form. He gives poetic expression to his pessimistic preoccupations concerning the future of humanity....

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Schavli, Kovno [now Kaunas], June 12, 1871; d New York, April 5, 1924).

American medallist of Lithuanian origin. He trained as a seal-engraver under his father and worked as a jewellery engraver and type cutter. In 1890 he went to New York, where he worked as a die engraver of badges, and in 1898 to Paris to study at the Académie Julian and later with Oscar Roty. He first exhibited medals in the early years of the 20th century. The influence of Roty is apparent in the low relief and soft-edged naturalism and also in the inclusion of flat expanses of metal in his designs. He occasionally ventured into sculpture, as in the Schenley Memorial Fountain (bronze; Pittsburgh, PA, Schenley Park), but he was best known for his medals and plaquettes, both struck and cast, and his sensitive portraits assured his popularity. The powerful head of President Roosevelt on the Panama Canal medal (bronze, 1908) and the tender Shepherdess plaquette (electrotype, 1907...

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in England.

Born 1966, in Fort Frances (Ontario).

Installation artist.

Angela Bulloch studied at Goldsmith's College in London, where she lives and works. She was awarded the Whitechapel Artists Award in 1989, and was shortlisted for the Turner Prize in ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

revised by Courtney Gerber

(b Fort Frances, Ont., Aug 29, 1966).

Canadian installation artist active in England. She studied at Goldsmiths’ College, London, graduating in 1988. In the same year she exhibited alongside artists such as Damien Hirst in the influential exhibition Freeze, curated by Hirst. Critics quickly identified the artists in this exhibition, including Bulloch, as the Young Britist Artists (YBAs), a nomenclature with which Bulloch expressed discomfort because it suggested a hermetic grouping (Bussel, p. 33). Bulloch’s work consistently focuses on interfaces and context shifts, it explores the myriad of outcomes and power plays brought about when contact between audience and art, site and art, form and content, or a combination of these connections occurs within given boundaries. In her interactive pieces, viewers perform some kind of action in order to trigger a response from the work at hand. Because Bulloch sets the parameters within which such interactions transpire, viewers do not gain absolute control over the artwork, in spite of their collaboration in its interpretation. In ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 31 December 1900, in Mooresville (North Carolina); died 2 September 1995, in New Hope (Pennsylvania).

Sculptor (marble/wood/stone/plaster). Historical subjects, figures, portraits, nudes. Coins.

Selma Burke graduated from St Agnes Training School for Nurses in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1924. Later, she studied art at Columbia University, ceramics in Vienna, and sculpture with Maillol in Paris in ...

Article

Frederick J. Dockstader

(b Pine Springs, AZ, c. 1910; d New Mexico, 1957).

Native American Navajo silversmith. He learnt the art as a young man from his half-brother John and an older Navajo, Left Handed Red, then branched out on his own. He became a successful silversmith, and with his wife Mabel was one of the most active craftsmen in the area, not far from the Hubbell Trading Post, AZ. During the fieldwork of ethnographer John Adair (b 1913) they became well acquainted, and Burnsides was a primary source for most of Adair’s study; Adair’s subsequent publication (1944) gave Burnsides a status that caused collectors to prize his work. Tom and Mabel were frequently called upon to tour and demonstrate their silversmithing and weaving skills, and they made several world trips under the auspices of the US Government Office of Information and of the State Department. Both were killed in a car accident.

J. Adair: The Navajo and Pueblo Silversmiths...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1904, in Indianapolis (Indiana).

Sculptor, medallist, ceramicist. Busts, low reliefs.

Robert Davidson studied under Albin Polasek and Alfonso Iannelli. He was a member of the Portfolio Club of Indianapolis. He was awarded first prize at the Indiana State Fairs of ...

Article

Martine Reid

(b Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, Nov 4, 1946).

Native American Haida sculptor, metalworker, printmaker and blanket-maker. He was the grandson of the Haida blanket- and basket-maker Florence Davidson (1895–1993), and great-grandson of the Haida wood-carver Charles Edenshaw. He began carving argillite as a teenager in Masset, and in 1966 he met Bill Reid, who offered him workshop space in Vancouver. There Davidson developed new carving skills and learnt the fundamentals of the two-dimensional (‘formline’) designs used by the Haida and other tribes of the northern Northwest Coast (see Native North American art, §III, 2). In 1969 he returned to Masset to carve a 12.2 m-high totem pole, the first heraldic column to be raised on the Queen Charlotte Islands since the end of the 19th century. In 1987 Davidson and his crew produced a set of three totem poles entitled Three Variations on Killer Whale Myths for the Pepsicola Sculptural Garden in Purchase, NY. In these totem poles Davidson worked within the strict conventions of the Haida style, refining it by introducing subtle variations in design but preserving a degree of conservative austerity in which movement and individual expression are sacrificed to overall unity of form. In his early work in silver Davidson used flat patterns influenced by Edenshaw, and he went on to develop these into an innovative style of his own in screenprints, silver and bronze. Davidson’s younger brother, ...

Article

Martine Reid

[Tahaygen]

(b Skidegate, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, c. 1839; d 1920).

Native Canadian Haida sculptor, metalworker and painter. He spent much of his adolescence at Kiusta with his maternal uncle Albert Edward Edenshaw, chief of the Haida Eagle clan, acquiring a considerable knowledge of Haida art and mythology. In 1882 the Eagle clan moved north to Masset, where, on the death of his uncle in 1884, he assumed his titles and privileges, including his chief’s name Edenshaw. Edenshaw was an imaginative craftsman who incorporated into his work technical and conceptual ideas from both native and non-native sources. He was a versatile and prolific artist who worked within the Northwest Coast tradition of two-dimensional design (see ). He carved both ritual and commercial objects in wood and argillite, including totem poles, masks, chests, boxes, platters and frontlets; painted designs on spruce root mats and hats, the latter often made by his wife, Isabelle; and produced silver bracelets. His commercial objects included a host of forms for non-native and market use; and his contact with a number of anthropologists and collectors resulted in a large body of well-documented, often commissioned works. The model totem poles and house models, for example, commissioned by the ethnographer and linguist ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Newark (New Jersey); died 1952.

Sculptor, medallist.

John Flanagan was a pupil of Bartlett in Boston, St-Gaudens in New York and Falguière at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Honoured in America, where he was a member of many art associations, he often exhibited in France. In addition to distinctions awarded him in the USA, he was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 4 November 1876, in Winona (Minnesota); died 11 October 1953, in Westport (Connecticut).

Sculptor, medallist. Figures, portraits, sporting subjects.

James Earle Fraser studied art at the Art Institute of Chicago under Richard W. Bock, at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Alexandre Falguere, and at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi in Paris. He was assistant to Augustus St-Gaudens at his Paris studio in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 14 September 1889, in Chicago; died 1966.

Sculptor, medallist. Portraits, sporting subjects.

Laura Gardin Fraser became a member of the National Academy of Design in 1916. She won a number of prizes and was commissioned to design the George Washington commemorative medallion....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 17 September 1880, in Philadelphia; died 1 January 1980, in Waterbury (Connecticut).

Sculptor, draughtsman, medallist. Allegorical subjects, figures, nudes.

Philadelphia Ten.

Harriet Frishmuth studied sculpture briefly with Rodin in Paris, and also studied at the Académie Colarossi under Jean-Antoine Injalbert, and possibly under Henri Gauquié. She worked for two years with Cuno von Euchtriz in Berlin. After returning to the USA, Frishmuth studied at the Art Students League, New York, under Gutzon Borglum and Hermon A. MacNeil, then worked as assistant to the sculptor Karl Bitter, and performed dissections at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York to learn about anatomy. Frishmuth received awards at the National Academy of Design (the Helen Foster Barnett Prize, ...

Article

Native American (Choctaw, Cherokee), 20th-21st century, male.

Born 31 March 1972, in Colorado.

Painter, sculptor, mixed-media artist.

Jeffrey Gibson received a BFA from the Art Institute of Chicago (1995) and an MFA from the Royal College of Art (1998), which was funded by his tribal group, the Mississippi Band of the Choctaw Nation. Since ...

Article

Gorham  

Gerald W. R. Ward

American silverware firm formed in 1831 by Jabez Gorham (b Providence, RI, 18 Feb 1792; d Providence, 24 March 1869). When he was fourteen Gorham began a seven-year apprenticeship with Nehemiah Dodge (fl 1794–1807), a Providence silversmith. He completed his training in 1813 and in the same year opened a jewellery business known as ‘The Firm’, which lasted until 1818, when economic hardships led to its dissolution. Jabez continued in business in Providence throughout the 1820s, and in 1831 he expanded his production to include the manufacture of coin-silver spoons with Henry Webster (1808–65). In 1837 William G. Price (d 1839) also became a partner in what became known as Gorham, Webster & Price, and in 1841 Gorham brought his son, John Gorham (1820–98), into the business under the name J. Gorham & Son. They expanded their line of flatware to include forks, tongs, thimbles, nursing tubes, toiletries and other small articles, sold mainly through the shop and a network of travelling peddlers. By ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 February 1874, in New York; died 1949.

Sculptor, medallist. Monuments, busts.

Henry Hering studied at the Cooper Union, at the Arts Students League in New York from 1894 to 1898. He went to Paris in 1900 and enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Colarossi. At the same time, he was working under St-Gaudens, whose assistant he was until St-Gauden's death in1907. His work includes several memorials. He was married to Elsie Hering....