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Article

Francis Summers

(b Philadelphia, Dec 17, 1960).

American sculptor, active in England. He obtained a BFA from Tyler School of Art, Philadelphia, PA, and an MFA from Goldsmiths’ College, London, in 1988. Exploring his interest in the government of behaviour by social constraint, he first used clothes and hair as materials before turning to animal remains and casts of human organs for his increasingly unsettling work. His The Cat and the Dog (1995; London, Saatchi Gal., see 1996 exh. cat., p. 4) consists of two skinned animal hides with perfectly reconstructed heads and feet. Described by the artist as frozen smiles, the animal objects act as abstract surrogates for socially repressed bestial tendencies. Be Your Dog (1997; see 1998 exh. cat., p. 10), consisting of scalped dog ears mounted on a wall as an invitation to wear them, illustrates this theme even more forcefully. Other works by Baseman represent human body parts. Muscle (1997...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Painter, sculptor, mixed media, architect.

Bedel's works are metaphorical. In relief to varying degrees, he combines shiny metal with dull organic materials to create models that resemble towns, while privileging the evocation of the book form. He gives poetic expression to his pessimistic preoccupations concerning the future of humanity....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Active in Springfield (Massachusetts).

Sculptor, medallist.

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Schavli, Kovno [now Kaunas], June 12, 1871; d New York, April 5, 1924).

American medallist of Lithuanian origin. He trained as a seal-engraver under his father and worked as a jewellery engraver and type cutter. In 1890 he went to New York, where he worked as a die engraver of badges, and in 1898 to Paris to study at the Académie Julian and later with Oscar Roty. He first exhibited medals in the early years of the 20th century. The influence of Roty is apparent in the low relief and soft-edged naturalism and also in the inclusion of flat expanses of metal in his designs. He occasionally ventured into sculpture, as in the Schenley Memorial Fountain (bronze; Pittsburgh, PA, Schenley Park), but he was best known for his medals and plaquettes, both struck and cast, and his sensitive portraits assured his popularity. The powerful head of President Roosevelt on the Panama Canal medal (bronze, 1908) and the tender Shepherdess plaquette (electrotype, 1907...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 31 December 1900, in Mooresville (North Carolina); died 2 September 1995, in New Hope (Pennsylvania).

Sculptor (marble/wood/stone/plaster). Historical subjects, figures, portraits, nudes. Coins.

Selma Burke graduated from St Agnes Training School for Nurses in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1924. Later, she studied art at Columbia University, ceramics in Vienna, and sculpture with Maillol in Paris in ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1904, in Indianapolis (Indiana).

Sculptor, medallist, ceramicist. Busts, low reliefs.

Robert Davidson studied under Albin Polasek and Alfonso Iannelli. He was a member of the Portfolio Club of Indianapolis. He was awarded first prize at the Indiana State Fairs of ...

Article

Martine Reid

(b Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, Nov 4, 1946).

Native American Haida sculptor, metalworker, printmaker and blanket-maker. He was the grandson of the Haida blanket- and basket-maker Florence Davidson (1895–1993), and great-grandson of the Haida wood-carver Charles Edenshaw. He began carving argillite as a teenager in Masset, and in 1966 he met Bill Reid, who offered him workshop space in Vancouver. There Davidson developed new carving skills and learnt the fundamentals of the two-dimensional (‘formline’) designs used by the Haida and other tribes of the northern Northwest Coast (see Native North American art, §III, 2). In 1969 he returned to Masset to carve a 12.2 m-high totem pole, the first heraldic column to be raised on the Queen Charlotte Islands since the end of the 19th century. In 1987 Davidson and his crew produced a set of three totem poles entitled Three Variations on Killer Whale Myths for the Pepsicola Sculptural Garden in Purchase, NY. In these totem poles Davidson worked within the strict conventions of the Haida style, refining it by introducing subtle variations in design but preserving a degree of conservative austerity in which movement and individual expression are sacrificed to overall unity of form. In his early work in silver Davidson used flat patterns influenced by Edenshaw, and he went on to develop these into an innovative style of his own in screenprints, silver and bronze. Davidson’s younger brother, ...

Article

Martine Reid

[Tahaygen]

(b Skidegate, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, c. 1839; d 1920).

Native Canadian Haida sculptor, metalworker and painter. He spent much of his adolescence at Kiusta with his maternal uncle Albert Edward Edenshaw, chief of the Haida Eagle clan, acquiring a considerable knowledge of Haida art and mythology. In 1882 the Eagle clan moved north to Masset, where, on the death of his uncle in 1884, he assumed his titles and privileges, including his chief’s name Edenshaw. Edenshaw was an imaginative craftsman who incorporated into his work technical and conceptual ideas from both native and non-native sources. He was a versatile and prolific artist who worked within the Northwest Coast tradition of two-dimensional design (see ). He carved both ritual and commercial objects in wood and argillite, including totem poles, masks, chests, boxes, platters and frontlets; painted designs on spruce root mats and hats, the latter often made by his wife, Isabelle; and produced silver bracelets. His commercial objects included a host of forms for non-native and market use; and his contact with a number of anthropologists and collectors resulted in a large body of well-documented, often commissioned works. The model totem poles and house models, for example, commissioned by the ethnographer and linguist ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Newark (New Jersey); died 1952.

Sculptor, medallist.

John Flanagan was a pupil of Bartlett in Boston, St-Gaudens in New York and Falguière at the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Honoured in America, where he was a member of many art associations, he often exhibited in France. In addition to distinctions awarded him in the USA, he was made a Chevalier of the Légion d'Honneur in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 4 November 1876, in Winona (Minnesota); died 11 October 1953, in Westport (Connecticut).

Sculptor, medallist. Figures, portraits, sporting subjects.

James Earle Fraser studied art at the Art Institute of Chicago under Richard W. Bock, at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Alexandre Falguere, and at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi in Paris. He was assistant to Augustus St-Gaudens at his Paris studio in ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 14 September 1889, in Chicago; died 1966.

Sculptor, medallist. Portraits, sporting subjects.

Laura Gardin Fraser became a member of the National Academy of Design in 1916. She won a number of prizes and was commissioned to design the George Washington commemorative medallion....

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 17 September 1880, in Philadelphia; died 1 January 1980, in Waterbury (Connecticut).

Sculptor, draughtsman, medallist. Allegorical subjects, figures, nudes.

Philadelphia Ten.

Harriet Frishmuth studied sculpture briefly with Rodin in Paris, and also studied at the Académie Colarossi under Jean-Antoine Injalbert, and possibly under Henri Gauquié. She worked for two years with Cuno von Euchtriz in Berlin. After returning to the USA, Frishmuth studied at the Art Students League, New York, under Gutzon Borglum and Hermon A. MacNeil, then worked as assistant to the sculptor Karl Bitter, and performed dissections at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York to learn about anatomy. Frishmuth received awards at the National Academy of Design (the Helen Foster Barnett Prize, ...

Article

Native American (Choctaw, Cherokee), 20th-21st century, male.

Born 31 March 1972, in Colorado.

Painter, sculptor, mixed-media artist.

Jeffrey Gibson received a BFA from the Art Institute of Chicago (1995) and an MFA from the Royal College of Art (1998), which was funded by his tribal group, the Mississippi Band of the Choctaw Nation. Since ...

Article

Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 15 February 1874, in New York; died 1949.

Sculptor, medallist. Monuments, busts.

Henry Hering studied at the Cooper Union, at the Arts Students League in New York from 1894 to 1898. He went to Paris in 1900 and enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Colarossi. At the same time, he was working under St-Gaudens, whose assistant he was until St-Gauden's death in1907. His work includes several memorials. He was married to Elsie Hering....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 December 1876, in Copenhagen, Denmark; died 1935.

Sculptor, medallist.

Victor S. Holm studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, and was a member of the National Society of Sculpture of New York. Many monuments in universities and hospitals, as well as commemorative medals, are attributed to him....

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1885.

Sculptor, medallist.

Julio Kilenyi was a member of the American Arts Federation. He sculpted medallions of Benjamin Franklin, Edison Pershing and Lindbergh, as well as many commemorative medals.

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 21 July 1880, in Brussels.

Sculptor, metal worker.

Adolphe Lambert taught until 1920 at the jewellery college in Brussels before going on to work in La Paz (Bolivia) and in Paris. He exhibited at the Brussels Salon from 1911 to 1913...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 31 August 1886, in Milan.

Sculptor. Busts, medals.

Luini was a pupil of Robert Ingersolt Aitken, probably in San Francisco, and of Edward McCartan. He was a member of the American Arts Federation. He sculpted medals and the ...