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Article

Monique D. J. M. Teunissen

Dutch company of art dealers and interior design and furniture workshop. The Arts and Crafts interior design and furniture workshop was set up in The Hague in 1893. The Art Nouveau character of the furniture produced by the workshop set it very much apart from its competitors. Designs were produced by the artist Johan Thorn Prikker and the architect Chris Wegerif (1859–1920). During the early years of the workshop the Belgian artist Henry van de Velde exercised a strong influence on its designs. After 1900 the designs became more austere, any Art Nouveau character being confined to woodwork and batik upholstery fabrics. In order to ensure the unity of each interior, an effort was made to have all the objects designed by the same artist. The workshop fostered a close relationship with The Hague school of painting.

F. Netscher: ‘Arts and Crafts’, De Hollandsche Revue (1902), p. 211...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

French family of cabinetmakers, antique dealers and collectors. The dynasty was founded by Jean Beurdeley (1772–1853), who, after service in Napoleon’s armies, opened a small antique shop in the Marais district of Paris and in 1830 bought the Pavillon de Hanovre, 28 Boulevard des Italiens, which was the Beurdeley firm’s principal gallery until 1894. His son (Louis-Auguste-) Alfred Beurdeley (1808–82) dealt in antiques and works of art and was also a cabinetmaker specializing in reproductions of 17th- and 18th-century furniture. His clients included Napoleon III and the Empress Eugénie. Alfred Beurdeley’s illegitimate son (Emmanuel-) Alfred Beurdeley (b Paris, 11 Aug 1847; d Paris, 20 Nov 1919) took over the gallery and workshops in 1875 and until 1894 concentrated on making luxury furniture, continuing the models sold by his father. He was one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers, winning a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

(b Paris, Jan 11, 1825; d Labbeville, Jan 8, 1906).

French collector. His collection (dispersed in sales between 1872 and 1906) comprised c. 1000 paintings as well as drawings, sculptures, furniture and objets d’art. Most of the paintings were of the Dutch, Flemish and German schools of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Among the most notable northern works were works by Hugo van der Goes, Hans Memling, Jan van Eyck, Jan Gossart, Hendrick Goltzius and Meindert Hobbema. Paintings included Rembrandt’s Portrait of a Woman (1633) and Landscape with Obelisk (1638; Boston, MA, Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.); Rubens’s Good Government Quelling the Demon of Discord (c. 1620–34; priv. col.) and Arion Saved by Dolphins (c. 1620–30; priv. col.); and Salomon van Ruysdael’s Quay View in Amsterdam (New York, Frick). French painting was represented by such works as Antoine Coypel’s Flora and Zephyrus; François-Hubert Drouais’s portrait of Madame de Pompadour (1763–4; London, NG); Jean-Siméon Chardin’s ...

Article

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

(b c. 1735; d Paris, Nov 20, 1807).

French cabinetmaker and dealer. He owes his reputation more to his activities as a dealer than as a cabinetmaker. Before he became a maître-ébéniste (4 March 1761) in Paris, he worked for Pierre Migéon, Roger Vandercruse and Macret. His own work, essentially in the Louis XV style, is not particularly different from that of his colleagues either in form or in the use of lacquer (e.g. Versailles, Château) or japanning with European decoration (e.g. Stockholm, Kun. Husgerådskam.). He was, however, particularly talented as a marquetry craftsman, as seen on his secrétaires (e.g. Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.), including one (Paris, Petit Pal.) stamped r.v.l.c.. While managing his workshop, he dealt in both new and antique furniture. After 1770 he made this his main business and he added his own stamp to those of his subcontracted colleagues. His business was extremely successful and from 1791 he described himself as an interior decorator....

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 27 November 1767, in Ferrara; died 5 March 1834, in Venice.

Painter, collector. Landscapes. Decorative schemes.

Cicognara was active in Venice and Ferrara, executing mostly landscapes and decorative paintings. He was president of the fine arts academy in Venice, and a noted critic, theorist and historian, publishing ...

Article

Marta Galicki

(b Stockholm, April 25, 1709; d Stockholm, Nov 9, 1777).

Swedish architect, administrator, designer and collector. Considered the most technically orientated of 18th-century Swedish architects, he studied mechanics under the engineer Christoffer Polhem (1661–1751) and architecture and drawing with Carl Hårleman and continued his studies in Paris and Rome, while recruiting artisans for work on the Royal Palace, Stockholm. He became Hårleman’s assistant during the construction of the palace and succeeded him as Superintendent of Works (1753–68). He used the Baroque style in his refurbishment of the interior of the church of St Mary, Stockholm (1760). He was also responsible for the Rococo interiors of the royal palaces of Drottningholm and Stockholm and designed several country houses, such as Svenneby in Östergötland and Myrö in Närke (both 1770). As an urban planner he is best known for his designs for bridges. He also invented (1767) a type of tiled stove that remained a typical feature of Swedish interiors (...

Article

(b Paris, c. 1715–20; d after 1783).

French cabinetmaker and dealer. He was the most famous member of a family of cabinetmakers; his father, François Faizelot Delorme (1691–1768), and his brothers Jean-Louis Faizelot Delorme and Alexis Faizelot Delorme were all maîtres-ébénistes. Adrien became a maître-ébéniste on 22 June 1748 and was a juror of his guild from 1768 to 1770. He stamped his work delorme. He made and sold luxury furniture in the Louis XV style, decorated with japanning either in imitation of Chinese lacquer (e.g. Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) or with European decoration (e.g. Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). He also carried out sumptuous floral marquetry (e.g. Paris, Petit Pal.). His most distinguished work consisted of small pieces of furniture (e.g. Paris, Louvre; London, V&A; Washington, DC, Hillwood Mus.) embellished with floral marquetry or inlays of scrolls and foliation executed in end-grain wood on a dark-veined, light-wood ground forming a chevron pattern (e.g. Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). His work in the Neo-classical style, however, failed to impress connoisseurs....

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

French family of restorers, dealers, cabinetmakers and painters. François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux (d Paris, 1 May 1848) was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David and became a picture restorer, founding his business in Paris at the end of the 18th century. He specialized in genre paintings of medieval ruins and troubadours and bought particularly from a younger generation of artists such as Louis Daguerre, Charles-Marie Bouton (1781–1863), Charles Arrowsmith (b 1798) and Charles Renoux (1795–1846), all of whom painted church interiors. Giroux also admired Gothic art and became the official restorer for Notre-Dame, Paris. His daughter Olympe Giroux and son Alphonse-Gustave Giroux succeeded him in his business. Another son, André Giroux (b Paris, 30 April 1801; d Paris, 18 Nov 1879), was a painter. François-Simon-Alphonse’s firm publicized its stock by holding exhibitions of Old Master paintings and contemporary art and by publishing catalogues of works both for sale and for hire from their premises. After ...

Article

Frans Grijzenhout

(bapt Amsterdam, June 21, 1744; d Haarlem, Jan 23, 1831).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, Curator and collector. He was the son of a sculptor of modest means, and presumably he, together with his brothers, first trained in his father’s workshop. In 1765 Wybrand became an active member of the Amsterdam Drawing Academy, where from 1772 to 1774 he won top prizes. Until 1772 he worked as a landscape painter in the Amsterdam wallpaper factory of Johannes Remmers. The staffage in Hendriks’s landscapes was added by Willem Joseph Laquy (1738–98). In 1772 Hendriks bought his own small wallpaper factory in Amsterdam, which he ran until 1776. Around 1775 he made a short trip to England with Hendrik Meijer (1737–93), a Haarlem painter, etcher and wallpaper manufacturer, and in 1776 moved to Haarlem, where he painted still-lifes and made watercolour copies after 17th-century masters for collectors. From 1782 to 1785 Hendriks was in Ede, where he drew and painted mostly landscapes. He returned to Haarlem in ...

Article

Petra Dupuits

Dutch retail store and former furniture manufacturing company. Metz & Co. was established by the Metz family in the 18th century, and it originally traded in silk fabrics. In 1902, under the directorship of Joseph de Leeuw (1872–1944), the firm became the sole agents in the Netherlands for Liberty’s, supplying the firm’s fabrics to a rich, fashion-conscious clientele; later Metz & Co. supplied Liberty furniture equally successfully. In 1918 Paul Bromberg joined the firm to design furniture and advise clients on interior furnishings. The firm then launched its own furniture collection, with Liberty’s period furniture gradually disappearing from the company range during the 1920s, when the firm also sold work by several other designers. When Bromberg left in 1924, his place was taken by Willem Penaat. From 1930 Gerrit Rietveld worked with the firm, designing such furniture as the ‘Zigzag’ chair (see 1983 exh. cat., p. 14) and the so-called ‘Crate’ furniture (...

Article

Walter Geis

(b Andernach, April 15, 1823; d Cologne, Sept 13, 1888).

German sculptor, writer, designer, collector, dealer and furniture-restorer. From 1846 to 1871 he made gothicizing sculptures for Cologne Cathedral: for example figures of evangelists, martyrs and angels and figured reliefs (limestone; south transept, portals and buttresses). He also produced sculpture in period styles for castles, public buildings and private houses, for example 36 limestone statues of German emperors (1882–7; Aachen, Rathaus). The balanced form of his blocklike standing figures shows the influence of classical sculpture, and their generally pensive expression may be traced to the influence of the Lukasbrüder (see Nazarenes). With the help of costumes, Mohr adapted sculpted figures to the style of architecture, but in general his work after 1860 is characterized by massiveness, broad surfaces and an expression of pathos.

Mohr’s later work suggests an admiration for Michelangelo and for the monumental sculpture of Mohr’s contemporaries Ernst Rietschel and Johannes Schilling. The sculptures Mohr made between ...

Article

Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b London, 1806; d London, 1871).

English architect, designer, writer and collector. He received his architectural training under John Soane and practised independently from 1832. He wrote three books that established his expertise on the subject of Elizabethan design, architecture and ornament, and in addition he designed Elizabethan Revival furniture, which was shown at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London.

From 1845 to 1852 Richardson taught ornamental and geometrical drawing as master of the architectural class of the School of Design at Somerset House, London. In 1846, along with H. J. Townsend (1810–90) and Richard Redgrave, he presented the curricular problems of the School to a Special Committee, which resulted in the reorganization of courses. In 1851 he was appointed Surveyor of the South Kensington estate of William Cavendish (1808–91), Marquess of Hartington (later the 7th Duke of Devonshire), and was responsible for supervising construction (1851–3) of the Earl’s mansion in Kensington Palace Gardens, London. His executed designs include works at Belsize Park, Hampstead (...

Article

(b Papendrecht, 1922)

Dutch furniture designer, collector and patron. Having originally trained as an architectural draughtsman, he became one of the most important furniture designers in the Netherlands after World War II. From 1947 he worked as a buyer, salesman and designer in the furniture department of the Bijenkorf store in Amsterdam. From 1955 to 1974 he designed for the furniture manufacturer ’t Spectrum in Bergeijk. Visser’s utilitarian concept of furniture was tempered by his interest in craftsmanship and his desire to produce unique works. Until 1955 he designed simple, well-constructed wooden furniture, using mostly natural pine. About 1955 he and his wife, Mia, moved into a house in Bergeijk, which had been designed and built for them by Gerrit Rietveld, and which they filled with furniture designed by Visser and his colleagues. In 1959 they began seriously to collect art by contemporary artists and enlarged their house with the addition of a gallery designed by ...

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