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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Richard Guy Wilson

Richard Guy Wilson

Stylistic term applied to architecture and decorative arts of the 1920s and 1930s whose origin partially lies with the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris (see Art Deco). The term was invented in 1966 and initially applied just to French 1920s design but shortly thereafter grew to encompass a wide variety of modernist architecture and design that displayed decorative traits that stood in contrast to the more austere Modern style sometimes known as Functionalism, Bauhaus style, or International Style. Synonyms for Art Deco have included Style moderne, Art Moderne, Modernistic, Cubistic, Manhattan style, skyscraper style, setback style, zigzag style, streamlined, stripped Classicism, Greco Deco, and others.

The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 was a lavish spectacle of pavilions and exhibits that showcased the latest modern tendencies in French and foreign design. Originally scheduled for ...

Article

Alan Powers

(Percy)

(b London, April 8, 1881; d London, April 15, 1939).

English designer. His early life was divided between the stage and the sea. He was a theatre designer in London and New York, and his stage career continued after World War I service and his survival of the sinking of the Lusitania. In 1924 he was Consultant Artistic and Technical Director of the British Empire Exhibition, Wembley, London, designing murals and restaurant interiors, as well as presentations in the Government Theatre (‘Attack on Zeebrugge’) and the Admiralty Theatre (‘Air attack on London’). He is chiefly remembered for his design work for J. Lyons & Co., the London hotel and catering firm. Bernard’s displays of marble, glass and chromium plate were dazzling but inexpensive. For the Tottenham Court Road Corner House (1926), London, he made an inlaid marble decoration of Niagara Falls, now covered over. The entrance to the Strand Palace Hotel (1930–31; dismantled, parts in London, V&A) was one of London’s few Art Deco extravaganzas. Bernard also had a lively interest in the Modern Movement, assisting in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 13 December 1875, in Dijon; died 30 November 1960, in Paris.

Sculptor, medallist, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, historical portraits, figures, animals. Monuments, low reliefs, groups, statues, medals.

Art Deco.

Henri Louis Bouchard was the son of a carpenter and a seamstress. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon before entering the studio of Barrias at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was awarded the Grand Prix de Rome for sculpture in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 December 1886, in Saintes; died 1986.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, decorative designer, sculptor, ceramicist. Scenes with figures, nudes, portraits, still-lifes, landscapes, animals. Designs for stained glass.

Japonisme, Art Deco.

School of Bordeaux.

René Buthaud worked first of all in Bordeaux under François Quinsac and then, ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1940.

Born 4 August 1883, in Bordeaux; died 24 August 1950, in New York.

Decorative artist, architect, designer, draughtsman. Furniture.

Art Deco.

Pierre Chareau worked in France until 1939, then went to live in New York. He regularly participated in the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs in Paris. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Blue Earth, MN, Nov 23, 1894; d Vero Beach, FL, April 20, 1989).

American interior and industrial designer. Deskey gained a degree in architecture and studied painting before working in advertising. From 1922 to 1924 he was head of the art department at Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA. In 1921 and 1925 he made trips to Paris, where he attended the Ecole de la Grande Chaumière and the Académie Colarossi, before returning to New York in 1926 as a champion of modern art and design. In 1926–7 he created the city’s first modern window displays for the Franklin Simon and Saks Fifth Avenue department stores. In 1927 he was joined by the designer Philip Vollmer, and the partnership became Deskey–Vollmer, Inc. (to c. 1929). Deskey expanded into designing interiors, furniture, lamps, and textiles, becoming a pioneer of the Style moderne (as Art Deco was known in America). His earliest model for the interior of an apartment was shown at the American Designers’ Gallery, New York, in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1876, in Paris; died 1955.

Painter, designer.

Art Deco.

Maurice Dufrêne was essentially an interior designer and, in his day, an important contributor to furniture design. His approach was neat and precise by comparison with the excessive ornamentation of previous periods. He exhibited in Paris at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, of which he was a member from 1909. His work also featured prominently in the decorative arts section of the Salon d'Automne and he played a major role in the organisation of the 1937 Exposition Universelle in Paris....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1876; d 1955).

French designer of furniture, glass, metal, ceramics and interiors. He was a pioneering exponent of Art Deco and a detractor of Art Nouveau, which in practice meant that he aspired to a style that was neither historical nor mannered. Dufrène was a founder-member in 1901 of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs (SAD). He inaugurated a range of furniture in very dark native wood and defended functionalism and the use of mechanical processes and mass production. In ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 20 March 1877, in Lancy (Geneva); died 7 June 1942.

Painter (lacquer), decorative designer, coppersmith, sculptor.

Art Deco.

Jules John Dunand trained at the École des Arts Industriels in Geneva, along with the wood engraver François Louis Schmied, who would be his friend and collaborator for the rest of his life. Together, they went to work in Paris in 1897. Dunand was one of the artists employed to make groups of winged horses for the Pont Alexandre III, in readiness for the opening of the Exposition Universelle of 1900. He also managed to find time for his own work, and began exhibiting some quite conventional sculptures at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts....

Article

Erté  

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active from 1910 in France.

Born 1892, in St Petersburg; died 21 April 1990, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, stylist, decorative designer. Stage costumes and sets, designs for jewellery, furniture.

Art Deco.

The son of an admiral in the Imperial navy, Erté was a pupil of Ilya Repin in St Petersburg. He went to Paris at the age of eighteen, apparently attended the Académie Julian and was admitted to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Jean-Paul Laurens' workshop. He began his career in 1913 with the couturier Paul Poiret. From that year onwards, he designed stage costumes for Mata-Hari, Mistinguett and Gaby Deslys and in 1914 he worked for the journals ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 July 1877, in Paris; died 1941, in Ste-Maxime.

Designer, architect.

Art Nouveau, Art Deco.

Paul Follot studied under Eugène Samuel Grasset, who was renowned as an interior decorator. He exhibited in Paris at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Salon d'Automne and Salon des Artistes Décorateurs, in which he was very active....

Article

Claire Brisby

(b Paris, July 17, 1877; d Sainte-Maxime, nr St Tropez, 1941).

French designer. He was a leading designer of furniture and interiors in the transition from Art Nouveau to Art Deco before World War I and in the subsequent popularization of the Art Deco style. He was a pupil of Eugène-Samuel Grasset in Paris, and his earliest designs, in the Gothic style, were published in Art et Décoration, the journal of design reform founded in 1887. From 1899 Follot was designing bronzes, jewellery and textiles for La Maison Moderne, the commercial outlet for Art Nouveau objects, and his interior design for a study, shown in 1904 at the first Salon of the Société des Artistes-Décorateurs, of which he was a founder-member, demonstrated his affinity with the prevailing curvilinear characteristics of Art Nouveau. Follot’s design for a study shown at the same Salon in 1909 revealed a change towards simpler, more rectilinear forms inspired by the revival of Neo-classicism, which became characteristic of his style. He employed light woods, ornamented with carved and gilded fruits, garlands and cornucopias (e.g. chair, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1893; died 1941.

Sculptor, designer, decorative artist. Furniture.

Art Deco.

Jean-Michel Franck was one of the great decorators in France in the 1940s. The inlay work of his furniture established his fame. His work as a sculptor, however, is little documented....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Vienna, Oct 14, 1886; d Los Angeles, 1958).

American furniture designer, born in Austria. He emigrated to the USA in 1914 and worked first in New York and later in Los Angeles. His most famous work is his ‘skyscraper’ furniture, which first appeared in 1926; many pieces were maple, and inlaid with Bakelite (e.g. skyscraper bookcase, 1927; New York, Met.). Frankl later specialized in metal furniture and in Art Deco furniture decorated with black lacquers and gold and silver leaf....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1878, in Charpentry (Meuse); died 1946, in Rheims.

Painter, designer, enameller.

Art Deco.

Jean Goulden initially studied medicine and in 1906 successfully defended his thesis on the physiology of the isolated heart. In 1914 he was mobilised as a doctor's assistant and travelled a great deal. He returned to France with some paintings on wood and some drawings. In ...

Article

Hervé Paindaveine

(b Brussels, April 7, 1877; d Brussels, Feb 22, 1956).

Belgian interior designer and architect. He was the son of the painter Adolphe Hamesse (1849–1925) and studied architecture at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. He then worked successively in the offices of Paul Hankar and Alban Chambon. With the latter he found his true vocation in interior design using numerous ornamental components, manufactured industrially, which he excelled at combining in Art Nouveau compositions. Assisted by his two brothers, the painters Georges Hamesse (b 1874) and Léon Hamesse (b 1883), he responded to the eclectic tastes of the period by exploiting a very broad range of styles in such commissions as the Cohn-Donnay house (1904), the Ameke department store (1905), a masonic lodge (1909) and the Théâtre des Variétés (1909), all in Brussels. He also worked on a number of cinemas in Brussels, including the Artistic Palace (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1883; d 1935).

Basque–French cartoonist, interior decorator and designer, notably of furniture but also of wallpaper, textiles and jewellery. His early work is in an Art Nouveau idiom, but he gradually became a pioneering exponent of Art Deco. Pierre(-Emile) Legrain was initially his employee and later his collaborator. In 1914 Inbe moved to America, where he worked as a set designer, and in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 2 November 1876, in Paris; died 31 December 1958.

Painter, designer, engraver. Genre scenes, nudes, landscapes, gardens, still-lifes. Designs (wallpapers/fabrics), designs for stained glass, theatre decoration.

Art Deco.

Francis Jourdain was the son of the writer, art critic and architect Franz Jourdain. He studied painting and colour engraving under Henri C. Guérard, and worked in the evenings at the studio of Eugène Carrière. He also studied under Albert Besnard and collaborated with him for three months on the decoration of the chapel of the Berck hospice. He took part in exhibitions of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and was made an associate member of the Society. With his father - for many years the president - he was one of the founder members of the Salon d'Automne. He collaborated on the magazine ...