1-20 of 129 results  for:

  • Interior Design and Furniture x
  • The Americas x
  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
Clear all

Article

Term used to describe a movement of the 1870s and 1880s that manifested itself in the fine and decorative arts and architecture in Britain and subsequently in the USA. Reacting to what was seen as evidence of philistinism in art and design, it was characterized by the cult of the beautiful and an emphasis on the sheer pleasure to be derived from it. In painting there was a belief in the autonomy of art, the concept of Art for Art’s Sake, which originated in France as a literary movement and was introduced into Britain around 1860.

The Aesthetic Movement was championed by the writers and critics Walter Pater, Algernon Charles Swinburne and Oscar Wilde. In keeping with Pater’s theories, the artists associated with it painted pictures without narrative or significant subject-matter. Dante Gabriel Rossetti took his inspiration from Venetian art because of its emphasis on colour and the decorative. This resulted in a number of half-length paintings of female figures, such as the ...

Article

Isabel L. Taube

Late 19th-century movement in the arts and literature characterized by the pursuit and veneration of beauty and the fostering of close relationships among the fine and applied arts. According to its major proponents, beauty was found in imaginative creations that harmonized colours, forms, and patterns derived from Western and non-Western cultures as well as motifs from nature. The Aesthetic Movement gained momentum in England in the 1850s, achieved widespread popularity in England and the USA by the 1870s, and declined by the 1890s.

The principal ideologies and practices of British Aestheticism came to the USA through both educational and commercial channels. As early as 1873, the Scottish stained-glass designer, decorator, and art dealer Daniel Cottier opened a branch of his interior design shop in New York and played a significant role in introducing aesthetic taste and artefacts to Americans. The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, with its extensive display of industrial and decorative arts, showcased British Aestheticism and the Japanese ceramics that influenced it. British art magazines and books, especially Charles Locke Eastlake’s ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1773; d 1855).

American cabinetmaker, active in New York throughout the first half of the 19th century; the principal competitor of his neighbour Duncan Phyfe. Allison’s furniture is characterized by the use of high-quality mahogany and a principled austerity in the use of decoration. His early work is in the Hepplewhite style, and his later work is modelled on Sheraton....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1756; d 1833).

American chair-maker, active in Philadelphia, specializing in Windsor chairs, which were painted or gilded. His relatives (possibly sons) John and Peter Allwine were apprenticed to him. The first family workshop opened on South Front Street in 1791, and the last, on Sassafras Street (now Race Street), closed in 1809, when Lawrence and John migrated to Zanesville, in Muskingum County, OH, they continued to make chairs, and also ran a tavern. Lawrence Allwine is the eponym of the varnish known as ‘Allwine Gloss’....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 11 May 1865, in St Louis (Missouri).

Painter, decorative designer.

Sylvester P. Annan studied in Paris with Jules Lefebvre, Boulanger and Luigi Loir. He was a member of the Society of Western Artists and the Artists' Guild of St Louis, and was also an architect....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in New Yorkc.1905-1906.

Born 1869, in Florence, Italy; died 1948.

Painter, decorative designer.

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Milton, MA, 1751; d Dorchester Lower Mills, MA, Aug 25, 1815).

American cabinetmaker . His father, also Stephen Badlam (1721–58), was a part-time cabinetmaker and tavern keeper. Orphaned at a young age, Badlam was trained both as a surveyor and as a cabinetmaker. Soon after the outbreak of the American Revolution he was commissioned as a major in the artillery. He resigned within a year because of illness but after the war was made a general in the Massachusetts militia. On his return to Dorchester Lower Mills, he opened a cabinetmaking shop in his house and became active in civic affairs. He built up a substantial business, which included participation in the thriving coast trade, and even sold furniture through the warehouse of Thomas Seymour in Boston. He also provided turning for other cabinetmakers in the neighbourhood and sold picture-frame materials and window glass. Several chairs in the Federal style with characteristic carved and stopped fluted legs are stamped with his mark, but his fame rests on the monumental mahogany chest-on-chest (...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 1871, in Chicago.

Painter, decorative designer.

Frances Louise Baker trained in Paris with Collin and Merson.

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1760; d 1838).

Irish–American cabinetmaker. He was a native of Dublin who trained in London before emigrating in late 1794 to Philadelphia, which was then the capital of America. In 1812 he entered into partnership with his son and advertised his ‘fashionable Cabinet Furniture, superbly finished in the rich Egyptian and Gothic style’. Surviving examples of his furniture are in Neo-classical style, such as the sideboard in the Utah Museum of Fine Arts in Salt Lake City....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1861, in Detroit (Michigan); died 1938, in Katonah (New York), committed suicide.

Painter, pastellist, engraver. Animals, landscapes, still-lifes. Wall decorations.

George Randolph Barse studied in Paris between 1878 and 1884 with Cabanel, Boulanger and Lefebvre. Among his decorative paintings is ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 June 1873, in Chicago; died 1953, in Beverly (Massachusetts).

Painter, decorative designer.

Frederick Clay Bartlett studied in Munich and in Paris in the studios of Louis Joseph Collin and Aman-Jean. He took classes with Whistler at his short-lived Paris school before returning to Chicago in ...

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b New York, 1808; d New York, 1895).

American cabinetmaker. He opened his first cabinetmaking shop in Pearl Street, New York, about 1830. Ten years later he moved to a four-storey ‘furniture warehouse’ on Broadway, near his competitor John Henry Belter, whose work, in particular the laminated rosewood chairs, Baudouine is claimed, perhaps unjustly, to have imitated. Baudouine’s production was huge; he employed up to 200 workers, including 70 cabinetmakers. He favoured the Rococo Revival style based on simplified versions of Louis XV designs and frequently travelled to France to purchase upholstery material, hardware, and trim. He also brought back furniture made in France, which he sold in his shop along with his own stock. Anthony Kimbel (d 1895) was Baudouine’s designer in the years before the shop closed about 1856.

In 1842 William Corcoran, wealthy banker friend of Mrs James K. Polk, ordered 42 carved, rosewood chairs for the State Dining Room in the White House from Baudouine. These balloon-back chairs with cabriole legs upholstered in purple velvet were part of the White House renovation that Congress funded soon after Polk was elected president (side chair, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1845; d 1908).

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in 1882, Christian Herter returned to Germany and Baumgarten took over the company. In 1891 he started his own company, William Baumgarten and Company, Inc., and in 1893 complemented his interior decoration business with a tapestry factory in his Fifth Avenue premises. He recruited weavers and dyers from the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory (which had closed in 1890), including five weavers from the Foussadier family. The factory’s tapestries include one at Grey Towers (1898).

A Short Résumé of the History of Tapestry Making in the Past and Present...

Article

American, 19th century, female.

Born 1859, in Philadelphia; died 1908, in Philadelphia.

Painter, decorative designer.

Carol H. Beck collaborated in the decoration of some of the large public buildings of Philadelphia.

Article

Simon Jervis

(b Hilter, nr Osnabrück, 1804; d New York, Oct 15, 1863).

American cabinetmaker of German birth. He arrived in New York in 1833 and became a naturalized American citizen in 1839. He was established as a cabinetmaker by 1844 and showed an ebony and ivory table at the New York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in 1853. In the following year he opened a five-storey factory on East 76th Street near Third Avenue. In 1856 Belter’s brother-in-law John H. Springmeyer joined the firm. William Springmeyer and Frederic Springmeyer joined in 1861, and in 1865 the firm’s name was changed to Springmeyer Bros; it went bankrupt in 1867. Belter’s fame is for technical innovation, reflected in four patents: the first, in 1847, for a device to saw openwork patterns into curved chair backs; the second, in 1856, for a two-piece bedstead of laminated construction; the third, in 1858, for a refinement to his process for achieving laminated construction with three-dimensional curves; and the fourth, in ...

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 17 May 1865, in Chillicothe (Ohio).

Draughtsman, decorative designer, writer.

John Bennett studied at the Art Students League in New York and at the Cincinnati Academy. He wrote and illustrated The Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo (published 1928...

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 8 July 1845, in Boston (Massachusetts).

Painter, illustrator, decorative designer.

James Henry Blake was a pupil of Rimnier and Hollingsworth in New York. He specialised in scientific subjects, but also painted a number of landscapes and taught art.

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 1875, in Jamaica Plain (Massachusetts).

Painter, miniaturist, decorative designer.

Ethel Blanchard studied under Frank Benson, Halle and Edmond Tarbell. She was a member of the Society of American Miniaturists and a teacher. In 1901 she became a member of the Copley Society....

Article

American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 15 December 1848, in Brooklyn (New York City); died 12 October 1936, in New York.

Painter, mosaic designer, writer. Allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, decorative schemes, genre scenes. Murals.

Edwin Howland Blashfield studied in Paris under Léon Bonnat (1867-1869, 1875-1880), and received guidance from Jean-Léon Gérôme and Henri-Michel-Antoine Chapu. He studied the decorations of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Jean-Paul Laurens and Paul Baudry in the Panthéon in Paris. During a trip to Englandin 1887, Blashfield associated with Anglo-American artists Edwin Austin Abbey, John Singer Sargent, Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Frederic Leighton. He returned to the USA in 1881. He later travelled to Italy to see frescoes, and also visited Switzerland, Germany and Belgium. Blashfield was President of the National Academy of Design....