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Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Aberdeen, 1740; d Philadelphia, PA, March 5, 1795).

American cabinetmaker of Scottish birth. He trained as a cabinetmaker in Edinburgh and London. In 1763 he arrived in Philadelphia on the same boat as John Penn, the new Governor of Pennsylvania and a future client, to join Quaker friends. He opened a shop on Union Street and eventually moved to Second Street in the Society Hill area. He made stylish mahogany furniture (sold 1788; e.g. Philadelphia, PA, Cliveden Mus.; armchair, Winterthur, DE, Mus. & Gdns) for the governor’s mansion at Lansdowne, PA, and many of the most prominent families in the city owned his work, including the Mifflins, the Whartons, and the Chew family at Cliveden. The parlour suite he made for John Cadwalader carved by James Reynolds and the firm of Bernard and Jugiez in 1770–71 was among the most elaborate ever produced in the colonies (pole screen, Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.).

A Quaker and Loyalist, Affleck refused to participate in the Revolution (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American family of joiners and cabinetmakers, active in Hadfield, MA. The brothers John Allis (1642–91) and Samuel Allis (1647–91), whose maternal great-uncle was Nicholas Disbrowe, were both joiners, as was John’s son Ichabod (1675–1747). The firm was managed by John Allis the elder, and employed his brother and sons; John the elder’s partner was ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1756; d 1833).

American chair-maker, active in Philadelphia, specializing in Windsor chairs, which were painted or gilded. His relatives (possibly sons) John and Peter Allwine were apprenticed to him. The first family workshop opened on South Front Street in 1791, and the last, on Sassafras Street (now Race Street), closed in 1809, when Lawrence and John migrated to Zanesville, in Muskingum County, OH, they continued to make chairs, and also ran a tavern. Lawrence Allwine is the eponym of the varnish known as ‘Allwine Gloss’....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1717; d 1785).

American furniture-maker whose New York workshop specialized in chairs in the Chippendale style. His reputation is largely based on attributed pieces, such as the sets of chairs made for Sir William Johnson (now divided, examples in Winterthur, DE, Dupont Winterthur Mus. and New Haven, CT, Yale U. A.G.) and for the Van Rensselaer family (New York, Met.)....

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Milton, MA, 1751; d Dorchester Lower Mills, MA, Aug 25, 1815).

American cabinetmaker . His father, also Stephen Badlam (1721–58), was a part-time cabinetmaker and tavern keeper. Orphaned at a young age, Badlam was trained both as a surveyor and as a cabinetmaker. Soon after the outbreak of the American Revolution he was commissioned as a major in the artillery. He resigned within a year because of illness but after the war was made a general in the Massachusetts militia. On his return to Dorchester Lower Mills, he opened a cabinetmaking shop in his house and became active in civic affairs. He built up a substantial business, which included participation in the thriving coast trade, and even sold furniture through the warehouse of Thomas Seymour in Boston. He also provided turning for other cabinetmakers in the neighbourhood and sold picture-frame materials and window glass. Several chairs in the Federal style with characteristic carved and stopped fluted legs are stamped with his mark, but his fame rests on the monumental mahogany chest-on-chest (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1760; d 1838).

Irish–American cabinetmaker. He was a native of Dublin who trained in London before emigrating in late 1794 to Philadelphia, which was then the capital of America. In 1812 he entered into partnership with his son and advertised his ‘fashionable Cabinet Furniture, superbly finished in the rich Egyptian and Gothic style’. Surviving examples of his furniture are in Neo-classical style, such as the sideboard in the Utah Museum of Fine Arts in Salt Lake City....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Norwalk, Staffs, Sept 16, 1632; d Hatfield, MA, Jan 3, 1713).

American joiner. He was brought to America by his parents c. 1640. In 1661 he moved to Hadley (now Massachusetts) in the Connecticut River valley, and entered into partnership with John Allis family. Belden’s son Samuel (1665–1738) and Allis’s son Ichabod (1675–1747) ran Belden & Allis after the deaths of their fathers....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Design common in some of the finest American furniture of the 18th century, first developed in Boston in the 1730s and then built elsewhere in New England, including Rhode Island. The contours on the front of the cases were formed of three blocks, two convex blocks flanking a concave block. In the finest examples the drawer front is carved from a single piece of wood, which had originally to be very thick in order to accommodate the curves. The finest exponents of block front furniture were the Newport families of Goddard (see Goddard, John) and Townsend family.

M. A. Norton: ‘More Light on the Block Front’, Antiques, 3/2 (Feb 1923), pp. 63–6M. M. Lovell: ‘Boston Blockfront Furniture’, Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, eds W. M. Whitehill, B. Jobeand J. L. Fairbanks (Boston, 1974), pp. 77–136P. D. Zimmerman and others: ‘An Important Block-front Desk by Richard Walker of Boston’, ...

Article

Bombé  

Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: ‘swollen’]

Having an outward swelling curve. The term is used with particular reference to French Rococo chests of drawers, which first appear in the bombé shape in the 1740s. The swollen section is normally in the upper half; when it is in the lower half, it is sometimes known as ‘kettle shape’. In colonial America bombé furniture was mostly made in Massachusetts, primarily in Boston but also in centres such as Salem. In American bombé the swollen part is in the lower section in forms such as chests- of-drawers, desk and bookcases, chest-on-chests and dressing tables.

G. T. Vincent: ‘The Bombe Furniture of Boston’, Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, ed. W. M. Whitehill, B. Jobeand J. L. Fairbanks (Boston, 1974), pp. 137–96.M. S. Podmaniczky and others: ‘Two Massachusetts Bombe Desk-and-bookcases’, Mag. Ant., 145 (May 1994), pp. 724–31M. K. Brown: ‘Topping off Thomas Dawes’s Desk-and-bookcase’, Mag. Ant., 157/ 5 (May 2000), pp. 788–95...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Somers, then MA, now CT, 1741; d East Windsor, CT, 1807).

American furniture-maker. He made cherrywood highboys and chairs in a style derived from the Philadelphia version of Chippendale, but is not known to have signed any of his furniture. Attributions are based on four documented chairs and a tripod table. From 1774 to 1783 his partner in East Windsor was Aaron Chapin (1753–1838), who was a second cousin. Aaron Chapin moved to Hartford in 1783, and there made furniture in a Federal style influenced by Hepplewhite. From about 1807 Aaron worked alongside his son Laertes (1813–47).

J. Lionetti and others: ‘New information about Chapin Chairs’, Mag. Ant., 129 (May 1986), pp. 1082–95M. G. Dowling: The Enigmatic Eliphalet Chapin, Connecticut’s Premier 18th-Century Cabinetmaker, and a Representative Catalogue of his Work (MA Thesis, New York, Cooper-Hewitt Mus. & Parsons Sch. Des., 1990)T. Kugelman and A. Kugelman: Connecticut Valley Furniture by Eliphalet Chapin and His Contemporaries, 1750–1800...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Ipswich, MA, 1738; d Boston, MA, 1819).

American furniture-maker. From about 1760 he was working in Boston, where he was the most important exponent of Bombé pieces carved in the American version of the Chippendale style. In the early 1780s, perhaps in response to Chippendale’s Gentleman and Cabinet-maker’s Director, Cogswell began to add double-serpentine shaping to the façades of his furniture. The number of secure attributions is small, but the existence of one signed piece has facilitated the identification of another 12 works by Cogswell....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Modern term for a type of 18th-century American mirror, sometimes given as a courting gift and often hung in hallways for last-minute grooming; early examples were imported (sometimes from the Netherlands), but thereafter most were made in New England. The frame typically consisted of painted glass strips, often in a metal moulding; some were surmounted with a crested area containing a picture....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1719; d 1775).

American cabinetmaker whose workshop was in Charleston, SC. His account book (1768–75) is an important document in the history of 18th-century American furniture. His furniture is signed with a diamond and figure eight, and is often decorated with a fretwork pattern of circular or oval shapes.

S. A. Humphrey...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1713; d 1781).

American cabinetmaker whose workshop in Philadelphia specialized in mirrors, notably fretwork mirrors but also carved mirrors in the Chippendale style. On his retirement in 1776 the business passed to Elliott’s son John Elliott (1739–1810), who also manufactured and imported mirrors.

A. C. Prime: John Elliott, Cabinet and Looking-glass Maker of Philadelphia...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Julia H. M. Smith

(b Boston, MA, April 6, 1734; d Charlestown, MA, Aug 19, 1809).

American cabinetmaker. He was the son of a Boston cabinetmaker of the same name and set up a shop in Charlestown, MA, in 1756. He served as a major in the American army during the American War of Independence (1775–83) and after the war joined the Society of the Cincinnati, a fraternal organization of American officers who had served during the war. In 1789 he was visited by President George Washington, a fellow member and past president of the society. Known for his block-front and serpentine-front case furniture with corkscrew flame finials, Frothingham also worked in other styles: he made a bombe secrétaire (1753; Washington, DC) and later in the century a sideboard (sold American Art Association, 2–4 Jan 1930, lot 417) and table (ex-Joseph Kindig III priv. col., York, PA, 1974) in the style of Hepplewhite. Most of his known pieces are labelled, the Boston silversmith ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American family of chairmakers active in Ipswich, MA and Portsmouth, NH. The founder of the workshop was John Gaines II (b Ipswich MA, 3 April 1677; d Ipswich, 24 Dec 1748). He worked with his son Thomas Gaines I (c. 1712–c. 1761), building furniture in a local variant of Boston designs; their account book (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Dartmouth, MA, Jan 20, 1723; d Newport, RI, July 9, 1785).

American cabinetmaker. His father, Daniel Goddard, a housewright, shipwright, and carpenter, moved his family to Newport, RI, soon after John’s birth to join the Quaker community there. He began an apprenticeship to Job Townsend family, probably at the age of 14. He became a freeman in 1745 and married Hannah Townsend, the daughter of his employer, the next year. Three years later he purchased a large house in Newport and opened a cabinetmaking shop adjacent to it. The shop had five work benches, and he apparently employed his sons to help him. At least 3 of his 16 children—Townsend Goddard (1750–90), Stephen Goddard (1764–1804), and Thomas Goddard (1765–1858)—went on to set up their own shops.

By the 1760s Goddard was at the peak of his career and counted among his prominent customers the wealthy Brown family of merchants from Providence and Stephen Hopkins, the governor of Rhode Island. In the early 1780s Goddard paid taxes at about half the rate of John Townsend, then the most prosperous cabinetmaker in Newport, but still more than any of the other members of the Goddard and Townsend families....