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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France.

The development of the Art Deco style, or the Style moderne as it was called at the time, closely paralleled the initiation of the 1925...

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1845; d 1908).

American interior decorator and founder of the first tapestry factory in the USA. He worked for Herter Brothers (see Herter, Christian) on the decoration of a series of grand houses, notably William H. Vanderbilt’s house on Fifth Avenue, New York, and William Welsh Harrison’s Grey Towers Castle (now part of Arcadia University) in Philadelphia. When the Vanderbilt house was completed in 1882, Christian Herter returned to Germany and Baumgarten took over the company. In 1891 he started his own company, William Baumgarten and Company, Inc., and in 1893 complemented his interior decoration business with a tapestry factory in his Fifth Avenue premises. He recruited weavers and dyers from the Royal Windsor Tapestry Manufactory (which had closed in 1890), including five weavers from the Foussadier family. The factory’s tapestries include one at Grey Towers (1898).

A Short Résumé of the History of Tapestry Making in the Past and Present...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

Jochen Eisenbrand

(b New York, NY, May 24, 1907; d Santa Fe, NM, Jan 31, 1993).

American textile and interior designer. Girard was one of the leading modern American textile and interior designers of the 20th century. Born in New York to a French Italian father and an American mother, Girard grew up in Florence and studied architecture at the Architectural Association in London, graduating with honours in 1929. As a child, Girard had already developed a strong interest in other cultures and in design as a communication tool. He dreamed up the Republic of Fife, an imaginary country for which he drew maps, passports, bills, and stamps and for which he invented dozens of secret languages.

In 1932 Girard launched his career as an interior designer and decorator in New York, working for wealthy private clients and restaurants. After marrying Susan Needham (1910–96) in 1936, the couple moved to Detroit in 1937. Employed as chief designer by the Radio manufacturer Detrola in the mid-1940s, Girard met Charles and Ray Eames and developed a lifelong friendship with them. In Grosse Pointe, MI, from ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Montreal; died 1991.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, decorative designer. Stage sets, frescoes, posters, fabric designs, advertising art.

Groupe des Automatistes.

Jean-Paul Mousseau was initially a pupil of Brother Jérôme at the Collège Notre Dame in Montreal, then studied in the studio of Borduas ...

Article

María Antonia González-Arnal

(b San Rafael de Mucuchíes, nr Mérida, May 16, 1900; d San Rafael de Mucuchíes, April 18, 1997).

Venezuelan sculptor, furniture designer, weaver and architect. He was self-taught as an artist. In 1935 he carved a sculptural group representing Christ, the Virgin and Mary Magdalene (untraced). In 1943 Sánchez moved to El Potrero, and in 1946 he constructed the only loom in Venezuela with three heddles. In 1952 he began the construction of the Complejo de El Tisure, near Mérida, an artistic and religious centre located in an immense isolated valley. His most representative works are housed there, including the sculptural group Calvary. Between 1960 and 1964 he executed some of his most original pieces of weaving and furniture. His first one-man show was held in 1982 at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Caracas.

See also under Venezuela, Republic of, §II.

Juan Félix Sánchez, Grupo Cinco (Madrid, 1982)Lo espiritual en el arte: Juan Félix Sánchez (exh. cat., Caracas, Mus. A. Contemp., 1982)E. Planchart Licea: Juan Félix Sánchez: El gigante del Tisure...