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American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 19 February 1946, in Washington DC.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, photographer, video artist, glassmaker, decorative designer. Theatre design.

AfriCobra Group.

Akili Ron Anderson attended the Corcoran School of Art and Howard University in Washington DC where he lives and works. He is a member of AfriCobra (African Commune of Bad Relevant Artists) founded in ...


Marco Livingstone

(b Washington, DC, Dec 26, 1924; d in Albany, NY, Feb 9, 2013).

American sculptor and painter . He studied art in 1949–50 under Amédée Ozenfant in New York. During the 1950s he designed and made furniture in New York, but after a fire that destroyed most of the contents of his shop in 1958 he turned again to art, initially painting abstract pictures derived from memories of the New Mexican landscape.

Artschwager continued to produce furniture and, after a commission to make altars for ships in 1960, had the idea of producing sculptures that mimicked actual objects while simultaneously betraying their identity as artistic illusions. At first these included objets trouvés made of wood, overpainted with acrylic in an exaggerated wood-grain pattern (e.g. Table and Chair, 1962–3; New York, Paula Cooper priv. col., see 1988–9 exh. cat., p. 49), but he soon developed more abstract or geometrical versions of such objects formed from a veneer of formica on wood (e.g. Table and Chair...


Hugh Davies

(b San Lorenzo, nr Reggio di Calabria, March 10, 1915; d Barto, PA, Nov 6, 1978).

American sculptor and furniture designer of Italian birth. After settling in the USA in 1930, he studied at the Society of Arts and Crafts, Detroit (1936), and the Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, MI (1937–9), where he taught metalworking and produced abstract silver jewellery and colour monoprints. In 1943 he moved to California to assist in the development of the first of a series of chairs designed by Charles O. Eames. His first sculptures date from the late 1940s. In 1950 he established himself in Bally, PA, where he designed the Bertoia chair (1952), several forms of which were marketed by Knoll International. His furniture is characterized by the use of moulded and welded wire; in the case of the Bertoia chair, the chromium-plated steel wire is reshaped by the weight of the sitter. Bertoia also worked on small sculptures, directly forged or welded bronzes. The first of his many large architectural sculptures was a screen commissioned in ...


American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 March 1867, in Bear Lake or Ovid (Idaho), to Danish parents; died 6 March 1941, in Chicago.

Sculptor, painter, illustrator, decorative designer. Figures, portraits, historical subjects.

Gutzon Borglum, brother of Solon Borglum, was born to a Mormon father with two wives, and he lost contact with his mother when his father left the religion and decided to conform to society's norms for marriage by abandoning her. Borglum studied at St Mary's Academy, Kansas City, in ...


Brian Austen


(b ?Sheffield, 1785; d Port of Spain, Trinidad, Nov 1846).

English sculptor, designer and architect. In 1810 he exhibited at the first Liverpool Academy Exhibition and showed models and drawings there in 1811, 1812 and 1814. These included designs for the restoration of the screen in Sefton church, Merseyside, and for a chimney-piece for Speke Hall, Liverpool, and two drawings of Joseph Ridgway’s house at Ridgmont, Horwich, Lancs. Bridgens designed furniture and furnishings in Gothic and Elizabethan styles for George Bullock. In 1814 he moved to London with Bullock, using his address at 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, and prepared designs for Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster (1789–1836) for improvements to Battle Abbey, E. Sussex, and similarly for Sir Walter Scott’s home, Abbotsford House, at Melrose on the Borders. Two chair designs for Battle Abbey were published in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in September 1817, and Bridgens was also involved in the design of chairs supplied to Abbotsford House in ...


American, 19th century, male.

Born 9 January 1869, in Beverly (Massachusetts).

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer. Seascapes.

C. Emerson Brown was a pupil of William Adams.


American, 20th century, female.

Born 11 September 1897, in Cambridge (Massachusetts).

Sculptor, decorative designer. Statues, monuments.

Jane Davenport studied under Alexander (Sandy) Calder and Antoine Bourdelle. She was a member of the Art Students League in New York. She built a monument for the American University Union in Paris and a statue for the Carnegie Foundation in Washington....


Cecile Johnson

(b Detroit, MI, Nov 17, 1929).

American sculptor and draughtswoman. She had no formal art education but from an early age enjoyed making useful domestic furniture, such as shelves and cupboards. After moving to live and work in New York in 1952, she became involved in the arts in various ways, taking classes in leatherwork and pottery and, through her job at the Henry Street Settlement, coming into contact with dance and theatre. In the 1960s she attended performances and Happenings at the Judson Gallery and Judson Church and herself performed in two of Claes Oldenburg’s Happenings (1962 and 1965), which influenced her. At this time she was making various sorts of sculpture. She began making the work for which she became known in the 1970s. It typically comprises wooden pyramidal/ziggurat-type constructions, made by stacking horizontally layered steps. An early mature work is Hollow Core Pyramid (plywood, 0.61×0.61×0.61 m, 1974; Glen Ridge, NJ, Levy priv. col.), for which the inspiration was an unwrapped mummy, which she found intensely ‘beautiful, haunting and evocative’; she wanted her own work to have a similar quality. Other early works for which she is known include ...


American, 20th century, female.

Born 1878, in Pennsylvania; died 1943.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer.

Elizabeth French was known mainly for her decoration of churches.


Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1929, in Buenos Aires.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor, decorative designer.

Kinetic Art.

GRAV (Groupe de Recherche d'Art Visuel).

Horacio García-Rossi studied at the national fine arts school in Buenos Aires between 1950 and 1957. In 1960 he was one of the co-founders of the ...


American, 20th century, male.

Born 28 October 1888, in Omaha; died 29 July 1960, in New York.

Sculptor, decorative designer. Groups, monuments, theatre decoration.

Charles Hafner made numerous group sculptures, many as decorations for theatres. He is best known for a statue of Peter Pan...


American, 20th century, male.

Born 1910, in Philadelphia; died 1975.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer. Stage sets.

Gabriel Kohn's father was an engraver, and he studied under him before being admitted at the Cooper Union in 1929 to study sculpture with Gaetano Cecere. He went on to learn modelling at the Institute of Design, while working for New York sculptors in the early 1930s. From ...


American, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born c. 1864, in Denmark; died 17 January 1916, in Chicago.

Sculptor, decorative designer.

Carl Lorensen executed the friezes in relief at the Royal Castle in Bucharest.

Chicago (Field Mus. of Natural History)


Veerle Poupeye

(b St. Andrew, Dec 29, 1902; d Sept 20, 1992).

Jamaican sculptor. He was initially self-taught, but later attended the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, London. He worked as a furniture-carver in the 1930s for the Jamaican Art Deco furniture designer Burnett Webster (1909–1992). His own work of this period was influenced by Art Deco and by Edna Manley. Gradually it became more academic, and he became Jamaica’s most popular monumental sculptor. Among his best-known works are monuments in Kingston to Jamaica’s national heroes, including Norman Manley (1971) and Alexander Bustamante (1972), as well as to the reggae singer Bob Marley (1985). He worked in various materials, including bronze, but was at his best as a woodcarver. His outstanding achievement is the carved ceiling decoration and lectern of the university chapel, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.

Boxer, D. and Poupeye, V. Modern Jamaican Art. Kingston, 1998.Poupeye, V. Caribbean Art...


American, 20th century, female.

Born 1944.

Sculptor, furniture designer.

Judy McKie produces artistic furniture.

Atkins, Robert: ArtSpeak: A Guide to Contemporary Ideas, Movements, and Buzzwords, Abbeville Press, New York, 1990.


Geoffrey R. Edwards

(b Melbourne, Feb 9, 1929; d New York, April 19, 2005).

Australian sculptor and designer, active in the USA. He studied aeronautical engineering and later industrial design at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, but left without finishing the course. From 1949 to 1953 he worked as an industrial designer, specializing in furniture. Marketed widely in Australia during these years, his furniture was distinguished by its simplicity. It was constructed with plain, undisguised materials such as steel rods, timber laminates, and cord; his tables, chairs, and shelving systems exercised a delight in linear and open structure that conveyed an impression of virtual weightlessness.

In his free time Meadmore began to produce sculptures, carving wooden shapes whose forms were similar to those of tensioned strings, and from 1950 to 1953 experimenting with mobiles. After extensive travel in 1953 in Europe, where he was particularly impressed by modern sculptures that he saw in Belgium, he produced his first large abstract sculptures in welded steel. Some of these, for example ...


Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France fromc.1970.

Born 1948, in Buenos Aires.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman, illustrator, sculptor, installation artist, decorative artist. Scenes with figures.

Nouvelle Figuration.

Ricardo Mosner mixes acrylics and pastels and also works in gouache, producing brightly-coloured, graphical, figurative works executed in a free and apparently slapdash style. He tackles subjects such as celebrations and night-life in a free and easy manner. In ...


Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Montreal; died 1991.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, decorative designer. Stage sets, frescoes, posters, fabric designs, advertising art.

Groupe des Automatistes.

Jean-Paul Mousseau was initially a pupil of Brother Jérôme at the Collège Notre Dame in Montreal, then studied in the studio of Borduas ...


Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...


American, 20th century, male.

Born 22 March 1884, in Atchison (Kansas); died 1941, in Los Angeles.

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer.

Peggy Martin Nichols, a pupil of Cecilia Beaux and W.M. Chase, worked in Los Angeles and was also an architect.