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Article

Togolese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 12 February 1977, in Lomé.

Painter (mixed media).

Félix Agbokou studied under Sokey Edoth between 1996 and 1999. He abandoned realism in favour of depicting a fantasy world, and his paintings are spontaneous to the extent that they have no predefined theme. Painted at night and by candlelight, each series of paintings is directly inspired by its immediate surroundings: Lomé, Kouma, Abouri or Ghana. Agbokou uses materials that come readily to hand - leaves of indigenous plants or the bark of local trees - and mixes them with acrylic paint, outlining his forms and individual colours with a black line obtained from a mixture of coconut milk and old nails. His work has featured at group exhibitions, including the ...

Article

Danish, 19th century, male.

Born 2 April 1805, in Odense; died 4 August 1875, in Copenhagen.

Writer, graphic artist, creator of silhouettes and collages.

The author of the Fairytales and the Picture Book Without Pictures proved, on occasion, to be a gifted engraver. He left delicate silhouettes of girls, cupids and swans beneath the trees. He also decorated screens with collages....

Article

Margo Machida

(b New York, Aug 16, 1949).

American printmaker and installation artist. Born and raised in New York City, Arai, a third-generation Japanese American printmaker, mixed-media artist, public artist and cultural activist, studied art at the Philadelphia College of Art and The Printmaking Workshop in New York. Since the 1970s, her diverse projects have ranged from individual works to large-scale public commissions (see Public art in the 21st century). She has designed permanent public works, including an interior mural commemorating the African burial ground in lower Manhattan and an outdoor mural for Philadelphia’s Chinatown. Other works include Wall of Respect for Women (1974), a mural on New York’s Lower East Side, which was a collaboration between Arai and women from the local community. Her art has been exhibited in such venues as the Bronx Museum of the Arts, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Modern Art, International Center for Photography, P.S.1 Museum, the Brooklyn Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, all New York and the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. She is the recipient of awards and fellowships from National Endowment for the Arts, New York Foundation for the Arts, and Joan Mitchell Foundation....

Article

Miwako Tezuka

(b Manila, Aug 19, 1973).

American installation artist of Filipino birth. Arcega was born in Manila and immigrated to the USA when he was ten years old. He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from San Francisco Art Institute and, in 2009, earned a Master of Fine Arts degree from Stanford University, California. While Arcega has worked with a variety of media, including sculpture and installation, he mainly focuses on language and creates visual and linguistic puns and satires that expose various social and political conflicts and problems resulting from globalization.

A tongue-in-cheek approach as an effective conceptual strategy has been used by a number of artists since Marcel Duchamp. In Arcega’s case, however, it relates more closely to the “format of jokes” that plays on unintended cultural misunderstandings between native English speakers and those for whom English is a second language. Ultimately, Arcega’s humor exposes the dark side of reality with frequent references to political and social issues. His installation ...

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Göteborg.

Painter.

After starting out doing collages in 1966, Gert Aspelin turned to Realist paintings with a didactic purpose. He has exhibited regularly, in solo and collective shows in Stockhom, since 1966.

Article

(b Geneva, Feb 25, 1872; d Lausanne, Jan 1, 1938).

Swiss painter and multimedia artist . From 1890/91 she studied under Hugues Bovy (1841–1903) and Denise Sarkissof at the Ecole d’Art in Geneva. A travel scholarship enabled her to study in Munich for a year. From 1904 until the outbreak of World War I Bailly lived in Paris, where she associated with Cubist artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Fernand Léger, Marie Laurencin and Sonia Lewitska (1882–1914). From 1905 to 1926 she exhibited regularly at the Salon d’Automne. From 1906 to 1910 her work was influenced by Fauvism, and from 1910 she became interested in Cubism and Futurism: Equestrian Fantasy with Pink Lady (1913; Zurich, Gal. Strunskaja) is reminiscent of the work of Gino Severini or Franz Marc in its rhythmic movement and planar fragmentation of horses and riders into coloured patterns. Other paintings of this period that are also indebted to these movements include ...

Article

Russian, 20th century, male.

Also active in France.

Born 1 January 1888, in Kherson; died 1944, deported to a concentration camp during World War II.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), sculptor.

Symbolism, Orphism.

After his secondary school studies in Odessa, Baranoff-Rossiné studied at the Academy of Art in St Petersburg from 1903 to 1907. He devoted himself to a career in painting. From 1907 to 1910, he exhibited with various groups including...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1943, in Plougoumelen.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media).

Bauduin's sculptures, which have a clear geometric tendency, are often realised in plastic materials, such as synthetic resins, and in metal. Bauduin has taken part in group exhibitions, including: Salon des Grands et Jeunes d'Aujourd'hui, Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Salon de Mai. He took part in ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Dutch, 19th century, male.

Born 11 June 1820, in Rotterdam; died 8 October 1860, in New York.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes.

For three years Albertus van Beest accompanied Prince Henry of the Netherlands during his travels in the Far East. He was primarily a painter of shore and river scenes, and is particularly known for his drawings in red chalk, Indian ink, sepia and wash. His approach was bold and simplified, giving it a very modern look....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 October 1840, in Monza (Lombardy); died 15 May 1904, in Milan.

Painter (including mixed media), watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, figures, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes, landscapes, seascapes, church interiors.

Mosè di Giosue Bianchi studied under Giuseppe Bertini at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan. He travelled in the course of his studies to Rome, Venice and Paris (where he exhibited successfully for the first time in ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 26 March 1946, in Le Havre.

Sculptor, painter (mixed media). Low reliefs.

Bosser lives and works in Paris. He realises abstract works on paper, as well as low reliefs revealing the roughness of the material used.

He has taken part in group exhibitions, including: ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 11 November 1850; died 1927.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtswoman (mixed media).

Symbolism.

Pre-Raphaelite.

Catherine Madox Brown studied painting with her father, Ford Madox Brown, as did her sister Lucy and her brother Oliver, and she very soon began exhibiting her work at the Royal Academy, the Dudley Gallery and at other venues in London in ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Gardner (Massachusetts); died 1970.

Painter (gouache/mixed media), illustrator. Landscapes with figures.

Harrison Cady lived for many years with his father, who was a naturalist, and made close studies of animals and insects. He worked as an illustrator for ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 6 August 1955, in Saarbrücken, Germany, to French parents.

Painter (mixed media).

Laurent Chabolle studied arts and crafts in Paris. He lives and works in the Yonne region and has shown examples of his work at group exhibitions, including at the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles (...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951, in Bronxville (New York).

Painter, collage artist.

Roy Dowell studied at the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland (1969-71), and at California Institute of the Arts in Valencia, where he was awarded a bachelor's degree in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 6 December 1926, in Deinze.

Painter (mixed media).

Lucien van den Driessche taught himself to paint. He adds all sorts of different elements and objects to his paintings, taking his inspiration from the New Realist practice of appropriating reality.

His work stands at the crossroads between abstraction and figuration. He places shapes which are more or less geometric inside empty spaces in irregular heaps, so that they evoke imaginary planets. He emphasises the fantasy atmosphere with emphatic use of purple and silver....

Article

Edward Hanfling

(b Hastings, March 21, 1930; d New Plymouth, Dec 8, 2011).

New Zealand sculptor, painter, printmaker, and installation artist. His art primarily involves assemblage, often with an eye to colour relationships; it also incorporates diverse sources including American modernism, African, and Asian art. Driver had little formal training and worked as a dental technician before he began sculpting with wood, clay, and dental plaster during the 1950s. Between 1960 and 1964 he produced assemblages and collages reminiscent of Robert Rauschenberg, though Driver was not aware of the American’s work then (e.g. Large Brass). In the United States from March to August 1965, he developed an interest in Post-painterly Abstraction as well as in Jasper Johns’s works. References to New York are manifest in his mixed-media wall relief La Guardia 2 (1966; Auckland, A.G.). The Painted Reliefs (1970–74) with their horizontal panels and strips of varying width and depth, mostly painted but sometimes aluminium, indicate the impact of American abstraction, notably that of Kenneth Noland. ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Dundee, Scotland; died 1945, in Edinburgh.

Painter (including gouache/mixed media), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. History painting, mythological subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes. Murals, designs for stained glass.

John McKirdy Duncan studied at the Dundee School of Art and then spent three years in London before leaving for Antwerp and Düsseldorf. During his time on the continent he spent a winter in Rome and developed a deep admiration for the work of Michelangelo. When he returned to Dundee he became a member of the Graphic Arts Association. From ...

Article

Sandra Sider

(b East Chicago, IN, 1933).

American installation and performance artist. Feminist artist Mary Beth Edelson created numerous private rituals, as well as installations and performances around the world relating to the “Great Goddess.” Edelson became famous in the early 1970s among members of the Women’s Movement for her collaged poster parodying Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (c. 1495; Milan, S Maria delle Grazie) titled Some Living American Women Artists/Last Supper (1971), in which she replaced the central figure of Christ with Georgia O’Keeffe, and images of the disciples with women artists such as Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson, and Yoko Ono. The original poster is now owned by the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Edelson, also a painter and book artist, has had artist’s books featured in several Book as Art exhibitions at the National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, DC. Recurring themes throughout her career have been female identity, how women are portrayed in art and the media, and women’s recognition as artists. Edelson’s opposition to the patriarchal establishment began while she was a senior at DePauw University, where she received her BA in ...