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Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(b Vila Nova de Gaia, Jan 17, 1923; d 2002).

Portuguese painter, graphic artist, critic and art administrator . In 1947 he was a founder-member of the Grupo Surrealista de Lisboa, with which he exhibited in 1949. By 1952 he was one of the few remaining members of the original group still involved in Surrealism. That year he held a large exhibition with two other artists, showing Occultations, photographs in which parts of the images were masked by overpainting. At the time he was more interested in the process of image-making, in the unconscious genesis of images and their internal rhythms, than in the result as an aesthetic object. From the mid-1950s, Azevedo’s paintings were almost entirely abstract and gestural, with greater overt affinities to lyrical abstraction than to automatism, for example Painting (1961; Lisbon, Mus. Gulbenkian). While in smaller works he often returned to the Surrealist use of collaged photographs introducing an element of shock or surprise, in his paintings there is an overriding interest in morphological dissolution and mutation, which remains lyrical rather than violent....

Article

Bio Art  

Suzanne Anker

From Anatomical studies to landscape painting to the Biomorphism of Surrealism, the biological realm historically provided a significant resource for numerous artists. More recently, Bio Art became a term referring to intersecting domains that comprise advances in the biological sciences and their incorporation into the plastic arts. Of particular importance in works of Bio Art is to summon awareness of the ways in which the accelerating biomedical sciences alter social, ethical and cultural values in society.

Coming to the fore in the early 1990s Bio Art is neither media specific nor locally bounded. It is an international movement with practitioners in such regions as Europe, the US, Russia, Australia and the Americas. Several subgenres of Bio Art exist within this overarching term:

(i) Artists who employ the iconography of the 20th and 21st century sciences, including molecular and cellular genetics, transgenically altered living matter and reproductive technologies as well as the diverse fields of neuroscience. All traditional media such as painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking and drawing are employed to convey novel ways of representing life forms. Images of chromosomes, the double helix, magnetic resonance imaging body scans and neuroanatomy comprise this iconography. The molecular underpinnings of the living world have also become visible through high technological instrumentation when artists incorporate such pictorialisations as part of their practice. Representations span both genotypic variations and phenotypic ones. Artists include Suzanne Anker (...

Article

Hilary Gresty

(b Sheffield, July 24, 1941).

English conceptual artist, writer and photographer. He studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to Conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed texts to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. In his ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 11 February 1881, in Quargnento (Alessandria); died 13 April 1966, in Milan.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, collage artist, engraver (including etching), lithographer, decorative designer, art theorist. Landscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes. Frescoes.

Futurism, Pittura Metafiscia (Metaphysical Painting), Novecento Italiano, Magic Realism...

Article

Native American (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Montana.

Printmaker, photographer, conceptual artist, installation artist.

Corwin Clairmont, or ‘Corky’, received his MFA from California State University, Los Angeles in 1971. His early work, concerning social and environmental issues, earned him a Ford Foundation Grant (...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris.

Installation artist, art theorist.

Computer Art.

Edmond Couchot is director of research projects and professor at the Université Paris VIII. He directs the department Arts et Technologies de l'Image (Arts and Technologies of the Image). As a theoretician, Couchot is interested in the relationship between art and technology, notably image arts and computer techniques. He has published several articles and a book on the subject. As an artist, he stresses the notion of the interactivity between man and computers using sound and the voice. Techno-scientific capability with regard to computer visualisation is an invitation to more extended thinking about the range of the so-called numerical image. The latter is not a representation of reality, but rather it gives a simulation of it, or more precisely according to F. Popper's definition, 'the numerical image of synthesis is no longer the optical projection of a pre-existing object, but the visualisation of a numerical model that simulates the object'. Virtuality follows on from the discovery of digitizing, from the possibility of handling all support material according to a logical mathematical matrix of numbers, which reciprocally becomes speech, sound, music, painting, drawing, writing or noise. The numerical image includes images of synthesis, images of graphic, photographic, cinematographic or videographic origin. This new image is no longer static once and for all; it continually reacts to programmed data. From the reality of life, it is towards the virtuality of experience that we are oriented, where space and time are, in principle, recreated....

Article

Mary M. Tinti

Architecture, design and conceptual art partnership. Diller Scofidio + Renfro [Diller + Scofidio] was formed in 1979 by Elizabeth Diller (b Lodz, Poland, 1954) and Ricardo Scofidio (b New York, NY, 1935) as an interdisciplinary design practice based in New York.

Diller studied at the Cooper Union School of Architecture in New York (BArch, 1979) and then worked as an Assistant Professor of Architecture (1981–90) at the Cooper Union School of Architecture, becoming Associate Professor of Architecture at Princeton University in 1990. Scofidio, who also attended Cooper Union (1952–5), obtained his BArch from Columbia University (1960) and became Professor of Architecture at Cooper Union in 1965. In 1997 Charles Renfro joined the firm and was made partner in 2004, at which point the partnership changed its name to Diller Scofidio + Renfro. While the couple (who are married) initially eschewed traditional architectural projects in favor of installations, set design and landscape design, by the 21st century their firm had received commissions for both new buildings and renovations of existing architecture. Diller and Scofidio were the first architects to receive a MacArthur Foundation fellowship (...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1931, in Eatonton (Georgia).

Painter, draughtsman (including ink), collage artist, print artist, sculptor, collector, art historian. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, figure compositions, scenes with figures, landscapes. Designs for stained glass.

David C. Driskell earned a BFA at Howard University in ...

Article

Not-for-profit organization, founded 1966.

In late 1965, the artist Robert Rauschenberg and the engineer Billy Klüver organized a project for 10 artists – John Cage, Lucinda Childs, Öyvind Fahlström, Alex Hay, Deborah Hay, Steve Paxton, Yvonne Rainer, Robert Rauschenberg, David Tudor, and Robert Whitman – to collaborate with a group of 30 engineers and scientists from Bell Telephone Laboratories to develop performances that incorporated the new technology....

Article

Native American (Okanagan), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Omak, Washington.

Printmaker, muralist, sculptor, mixed-media artist. Collage, glass.

Born in 1953, Joe Feddersen is an Okanagan member of the Colville Confederated Tribes, and a Native American artist. He earned his BFA at the University of Washington (...

Article

Renato Barilli

(b Rosario, Santa Fé, Feb 19, 1899; d Comabbio, nr Varese, Sept 7, 1968).

Italian painter, sculptor and theorist of Argentine birth. He moved with his family to Milan in 1905 but followed his father back to Buenos Aires in 1922 and there established his own sculpture studio in 1924. On settling again in Milan he trained from 1928 to 1930 at the Accademia di Brera, where he was taught by the sculptor Adolfo Wildt; Wildt’s devotion to the solemn and monumental plasticity of the Novecento Italiano group epitomized the qualities against which Fontana was to react in his own work. Fontana’s sculpture The Harpooner (gilded plaster, h. 1.73 m, 1934; Milan, Renzo Zavanella priv. col., see 1987 exh. cat., p. 118) is typical of his work of this period, with a dynamic nervousness in the thin shape of the weapon poised to deliver a final blow and in the coarse and formless plinth. Soon afterwards, together with other northern Italian artists such as Fausto Melotti, Fontana abandoned any lingering Novecento elements in favour of a strict and coherent form of abstraction. In ...

Article

Native American (Cheyenne and Arapaho), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 22 November, 1954, in Wichita (Kansas).

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist, conceptual artist, educator.

Edgar Heap of Birds is one of the most distinguished North American indigenous artists of his generation. His works reveal a distinctly critical and historical awareness of the ways that American Indian peoples, their histories and their viewpoints have been ignored and written over under colonialism. He has received numerous honours, presenting his work in competition for the United States Pavilion at the 52nd Venice Biennale (...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1961, in Brussels.

Installation artist, video artist.

From 1979 to 1985 Höller studied agronomy in Kiel, before embarking on his artistic career. His work is based on the future and the Darwinian theory of the evolution of the species as developed most famously by biologist Richard Dawkins. This theory repudiates, as far as evolution is concerned, any notion of romanticism about universal love and the well-being of species. Effectively, genes programme the living organism in a selfish way; their primary function is replication. So Carsten Höller's works, which are mainly interactive installations, take pleasure in demythologizing our so-called altruistic, but unconsciously selfish, behaviour and propose new approaches to the subject, particularly in the fields of sex and passion. Nevertheless, the human species has the ability to operate in the cultural domain, as demonstrated in his video, ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 5 April 1938, in Worcester, Massachusetts; died 8 February 2014, in New York.

Sculptor, installation artist, filmmaker, photographer. Land Art, Environmental Art, Public Art, Post-Minimalism.

Nancy Holt received a BA in Biology from Tufts University in 1960 and then briefly travelled through Europe, before moving to New York City. There, she met influential Minimalist and Post-Minimalist artists, many of whom would become collaborators, including: Carl Andre, Dan Graham, Eva Hesse, Joan Jonas, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra. Holt’s early artistic output was primarily photography, video, and Concrete poetry, mediums in which she continued to work throughout her career....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

[Francisko; Fransisko]

(b Vasil’yevka, Saratov region, June 4, 1943).

Russian installation artist and theorist. The son of a Spanish Republican émigré, Infante studied at the Surikov Art Institute in Moscow from 1956 to 1962. From 1962 to 1968 he was a member of the group Dvizheniye (Movement), which elaborated the principles of kinetic art. In 1970, together with his wife, the artist Nonna Goryunova (b 1944), and the designer Valery Osipov (b 1941), he organized his own group, ARGO, which became prominent in the Moscow avant-garde of the period. Characteristic of his work in the 1960s are abstract geometric paintings, blueprints for his subsequent three-dimensional compositions. Underlying these compositions is the notion of the artefact, the handmade object, symbolizing the harmony of art, the technosphere and nature. Although to some extent he continued the traditions of Russian Constructivism, he succeeded in infusing his work with a sense of ideal ecological balance, free from technocratic utopianism. His work comprises series of numerous temporary landscape installations, for example ...

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Ersekujvar, Hungary, March 21, 1887; d Budapest, July 22, 1967).

Hungarian writer, painter, theorist, collagist, designer, printmaker and draughtsman. His family moved to Budapest in 1904, and, after finishing an apprenticeship as a blacksmith, in 1908 he began publishing stories and poems. In 1909–10 he travelled across Western Europe and spent some time in Paris, becoming acquainted with modern art and anarchist ideas. He published short stories, plays and poems in Budapest and from November 1915 he edited the periodical A Tett (‘The deed’), which was anti-militarist and discussed socialist theories and avant-garde ideas. In summer 1916 he spent time in the Kecskemét artists’ colony with his brother-in-law Béla Uitz and under his influence executed his first ink drawings (e.g. Landscape, 1916; Budapest, N.G.). Progressive young artists and aesthetes grouped themselves around Kassák; after A Tett was banned in September 1916, he started in November a new periodical, MA (‘Today’; see MA group), which he edited with Uitz (to ...

Article

Frank Popper

Term applied to works of art concerned with real and apparent movement. It may encompass machines, mobiles and light objects in actual motion; more broadly, it also includes works in virtual or apparent movement, which could be placed under the denomination of Op art. Kinetic art originated between 1913 and 1920, when a few isolated figures such as Marcel Duchamp, Vladimir Tatlin (see fig.) and Naum Gabo conceived their first works and statements to lay stress on mechanical movement. At about the same time Tatlin, Aleksandr Rodchenko and Man Ray constructed their first mobiles, and Thomas Wilfred and Adrian Bernard Klein, with Ludwig Hirschfeld-Mack and Kurt Schwerdtfeger at the Bauhaus, began to develop their colour organs and projection techniques in the direction of an art medium consisting of light and movement (1921–3). Although László Moholy-Nagy and Alexander Calder pursued more or less continuous artistic research into actual motion in the 1920s and 1930s, it was only after ...

Article

Abigail Winograd

Following World War II, artists across Latin America embraced the newly emerging language of optical and kinetic art—art movements concerned primarily with the vagaries of visual perception and bodily spectatorial engagement. Kinetic artists throughout the Americas sought out these new visual languages to more accurately describe and reflect upon the changes occurring in postwar societies. They appeared at the forefront of a growing international movement that coalesced in part around the Galerie Denis René in Paris and in a series of exhibitions titled New Tendencies that took place in Zagreb between 1961 and 1973.

Movement has long been central to the development of abstraction in Latin America. Joaquín Torres-García, a seminal figure in Latin American modernism and founder of Taller Torres García, began producing interactive wooden sculptures in the 1920s while still living abroad in Paris, a practice continued upon his return to his native Uruguay in 1934. Torres-García’s sculptures influenced a group of artists in Argentina who would go on to found the movement ...

Article

Russian, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 8 August 1943, in Tripoli, USSR (now Republic of Georgia)

Photographer, painter, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist.

Soviet Nonconformist Art; Moscow Conceptualism.

Collective Actions (group).

Igor Makarevich grew up Tbilisi, Georgia before moving to Moscow in 1951. From 1955 to 1962...

Article

Dennis Raverty

(b Birmingham, AL, Oct 17, 1955).

African American painter, writer, film production designer, and multimedia installation artist. Marshall’s works portray idealized subjects derived from African American experience in large-scale, multiple-figure paintings and installations that share many characteristics with European history painting in the “grand manner” of Peter Paul Rubens, Benjamin West, Jacques-Louis David, and the 19th-century academic tradition. This “high culture” Euro-American tradition is juxtaposed with elements of African American vernacular culture in order to reinsert African American subjects and aesthetics into the larger mainstream of America’s artistic and cultural history—a history from which, the artist believes, blacks have been largely excluded.

Marshall was born in Birmingham, AL, one of the most segregated cities in the United States at that time, and the site of civil rights demonstrations in the early 1960s. He moved with his parents in 1963 to Nickerson Gardens public housing project in Watts, CA, just a few years before the riots there. Consequently, the struggles of the civil rights movement profoundly affected him and are a major theme in his mature work....