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Article

Hilary Gresty

(b Sheffield, July 24, 1941).

English conceptual artist, writer and photographer. He studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to Conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed texts to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. In his ...

Article

Native American (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Montana.

Printmaker, photographer, conceptual artist, installation artist.

Corwin Clairmont, or ‘Corky’, received his MFA from California State University, Los Angeles in 1971. His early work, concerning social and environmental issues, earned him a Ford Foundation Grant (...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1961, in Brussels.

Installation artist, video artist.

From 1979 to 1985 Höller studied agronomy in Kiel, before embarking on his artistic career. His work is based on the future and the Darwinian theory of the evolution of the species as developed most famously by biologist Richard Dawkins. This theory repudiates, as far as evolution is concerned, any notion of romanticism about universal love and the well-being of species. Effectively, genes programme the living organism in a selfish way; their primary function is replication. So Carsten Höller's works, which are mainly interactive installations, take pleasure in demythologizing our so-called altruistic, but unconsciously selfish, behaviour and propose new approaches to the subject, particularly in the fields of sex and passion. Nevertheless, the human species has the ability to operate in the cultural domain, as demonstrated in his video, ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born 5 April 1938, in Worcester, Massachusetts; died 8 February 2014, in New York.

Sculptor, installation artist, filmmaker, photographer. Land Art, Environmental Art, Public Art, Post-Minimalism.

Nancy Holt received a BA in Biology from Tufts University in 1960 and then briefly travelled through Europe, before moving to New York City. There, she met influential Minimalist and Post-Minimalist artists, many of whom would become collaborators, including: Carl Andre, Dan Graham, Eva Hesse, Joan Jonas, Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris, and Richard Serra. Holt’s early artistic output was primarily photography, video, and Concrete poetry, mediums in which she continued to work throughout her career....

Article

Russian, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 8 August 1943, in Tripoli, USSR (now Republic of Georgia)

Photographer, painter, sculptor, printmaker, installation artist.

Soviet Nonconformist Art; Moscow Conceptualism.

Collective Actions (group).

Igor Makarevich grew up Tbilisi, Georgia before moving to Moscow in 1951. From 1955 to 1962...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 27 May 1944, in New York City.

Installation artist, sculptor, designer. Land Art, environmental art, site-specific art.

Mary Miss studied at the University of California at Santa Barbara, graduating with a BA in 1966. She received her MFA from the Rhinehart School of Sculpture at the Maryland Art Institute in ...

Article

Native American (Crow), 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1981, in Billings (Montana).

3D, collage and installation artist, photographer, printmaker.

Wendy Red Star, member of the Crow Nation and niece of noted Crow painter Kevin Red Star, works in a variety of media to produce multi-layered artworks which point to complexities in indigenous North American experience today. Drawing particularly on her years growing up near to the Crow Indian Reservation in Northern Montana, in collages such as ...

Article

Native American (Tuscarora), 20th century, female.

Born 1956, in Sanborn (New York).

Photographer, installation artist, curator, and professor.

Jolene Rickard received her BFA from the Rochester Institute of Technology, an MS from Buffalo State College and her doctorate from the University of Buffalo. Rickard is particularly interested in the transfer of Native oral traditions and cultural knowledge both on and off the reservation. Her art installations and photographs reference her Haudenosaunee/Tuscarora heritage and the importance of teaching and learning in the Native community. In the exhibit ...

Article

Lithuanian, 20th century, female.

Born 5 November 1894, in Kovno (Kaunas), Lithuania; died 20 May 1958, in Moscow.

Painter (including gouache), collage artist, photomontage artist, designer, graphic designer, illustrator, poet, writer and theorist. Figures, landscapes. Stage sets, artist's books.

Constructivism. Productivist group. VKhUTEMAS.

Varvara Stepanova studied at the Kazan School of Art in Moscow in ...

Article

African American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 17 March 1976, in Plainfield (New Jersey), United States.

Photographer, conceptual artist. Appropriation art. Mixed media.

The New York–based artist Hank Willis Thomas received a bachelor of fine arts degree in photography and Africana studies from New York University and later received his master of fine arts degree in photography and visual criticism from the California College of Arts. As a photo-conceptual artist, he uses found imagery from advertisements and mass media to explore and provoke themes related to identity, race, gender, history, and popular culture. He refers to himself as ‘a visual cultural archaeologist’ and has spoken at length about the influence of Carrie Mae Weems and of his mother, the photographer Deborah Willis....

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....