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Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1863, in Rolle (Vaud); died 1948, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Murals, designs for stained glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Ernest Bieler was the uncle of André Charles Bieler. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. He divided his time between the mountainous regions of the Valais and the shores of Lake Geneva; his body of work evokes the everyday life of the peasant communities in the Valais and the Canton of Vaud at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bieler was commissioned to paint compositions for the ceiling of the Victoria hall in Geneva; decorative panels and windows for the federal government building in Bern; stained glass windows for the Vevey church of St-Martin; and decorations for the vintners' festival. Additionally, he exhibited woodcut engravings and designed furniture....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 22 October 1878, in Vienna; died 30 July 1960, in Hamburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Designs (furniture/fabrics/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Wiener Werkstätte group.

Carl Otto Czeschka trained at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, most notably under Christian Griepenkerl. He was a member of the Vienna Secession. In ...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1871, in Berlin; died 15 April 1925, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Draughtsman, architect, decorative artist, designer, illustrator, author. Furniture, jewellery, lamps, art objects.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

In Munich, August Endell studied philosophy, art history, aesthetics and psychology, notably a course run by Theodor Lipp on the psychological effect of the perception of lines and forms. There, in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 15 February 1883, in Marktheidenfeld; died 15 February 1964, in Nuremberg.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Landscapes with figures, landscapes. Designs (ex-libris/fabrics/furniture/porcelain).

Jugendstil.

After losing his mother at a very early age, Hermann Gradl was brought up by his father's family, with one of his cousins, Hermann Gradl Sr, a Jugendstil artist who was highly thought of at the time. He was first trained at the Städtische Gewerbeschule, Munich, then in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 May 1869, in Wachbach bei Mergentheim; died 1926, in Dresden.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects. Murals, designs (furniture, fabrics, carpets).

Jugendstil.

Otto Gussmann first attended classes at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Stuttgart, then at the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin under Max Koch. After this, he entered the academy in Berlin, where he was supervised by Josef Scheurenberg. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1874, in Dresden; died 1966, in Dresden.

Draughtswoman. Designs (objets d'art, furniture, decorative motifs).

Jugendstil.

Margarete Junge was trained in the decorative arts at Dresden, then at the Woman's academy in Munich. From 1907 to 1933, she taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden. From ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1874, in Neustadt bei Leipzig; died 1947, in Erbach/Westerwald.

Painter, draughtsman, interior designer, graphic designer. Designs (furniture, fabrics, porcelain, precious metals, jewels).

Jugendstil.

Erich Kleinhempel first trained with Oskar Haebler in his graphics studio in Dresden, then entered the Kunstgewerbeschule in Dresden, where he studied ...

Article

German, 20th century, female.

Born 1875, in Leipzig; died 1948, in Althagen near Wustrow.

Illustrator, draughtswoman, decorative designer. Designs for fabrics, furniture and jewels.

Jugendstil.

Gertrud Kleinhempel studied drawing in Dresden, then in Munich, and made her debut in 1899 as an illustrator in Dresden. From ...

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 7 June 1868, in Glasgow; died 10 December 1928, in London.

Designer, watercolourist. Designs for furniture and textiles.

Art Nouveau.

Glasgow School.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh began work in an architectural studio at the age of 16, and subsequently trained at Glasgow School of Art between ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 24 March 1834, in Walthamstow (Essex); died 3 October 1896, at Kelmscott House, Hammersmith, London.

Painter, draughtsman, designer, typographer, poet, architect. Designs (furniture/wallpapers/fabrics/stained glass windows).

Symbolism, Arts and Crafts, Art Nouveau.

Pre-Raphaelite.

William Morris the son of a successful City of London bill-broker, grew up in Walthamstow, on the edge of Epping Forest, and was educated at Marlborough College, in Wiltshire....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 April 1887, in Sankt-Michael, near Salzburg; died 16 April 1923, in Mödling, near Vienna.

Painter, designer, architect, designer. Designs for wallpapers, jewels, ceramics, fabrics and glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Wiener Werkstätte group.

The brother of Ernst Peche, Dagobert Peche received his architectural training from Friedrich F. Ohmann at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. In Vienna he produced fabric designs for the decoration firms of Johann Backhausen, Philipp Haas, the Wiener Porzellanmanufaktur Böck, the Vereinigte Wiener und Gmunder Keramik. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1872; died 1940.

Glassmaker, draughtsman. Designs (furniture, lamps, fabrics, glassware, objets d'art).

Jugendstil.

Carl Georg von Reichenbach was first a pupil at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich then at the private school of Obrist and of Debschitz in Munich from 1905 to 1912...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 23 March 1878, in Bad Kreuznach; died 1964, in Munich.

Painter, pastellist, draughtsman, designer, interior designer. Murals, furniture, carpets, jewellery.

Jugendstil.

Hans Schmithals was a pupil in Munich of the Debschitz-Schule co-founded by Obrist where he later taught the painting of wallpaper. Between ...