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Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1817, probably in Dumfries; died 1876, in Birmingham.

Painter, draughtsman.

William Aitkin moved to Birmingham at around 20 years of age and worked there as a teacher and industrial designer.

Birmingham: James Watt's Room, Birmingham (two drawings)

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 19th century, in Paris.

Painter, decorative designer.

Exhibited furniture at the Paris Salon d'Automne of 1910.

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1863, in Belleville.

Painter.

Director of the School of Commercial Arts and editor of various publications on the decorative arts. In 1909, he published a collection of Monograms ( Monogrammes) composed and drawn by himself.

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 31 December 1849, in St Gall; died 1921, in Planegg.

Architect, painter, decorative designer, theorist. Designs (furniture/fabrics/metal objects/ceramics).

Jugendstil.

From 1868 to 1871 Hans Eduard von Berlepsch-Valendas was a student of architecture with Gottfried Sempers in Zurich. After graduating he abandoned architecture while he was living in Frankfurt, to go and train as a painter in Munich (...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1863, in Rolle (Vaud); died 1948, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Murals, designs for stained glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Ernest Bieler was the uncle of André Charles Bieler. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. He divided his time between the mountainous regions of the Valais and the shores of Lake Geneva; his body of work evokes the everyday life of the peasant communities in the Valais and the Canton of Vaud at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bieler was commissioned to paint compositions for the ceiling of the Victoria hall in Geneva; decorative panels and windows for the federal government building in Bern; stained glass windows for the Vevey church of St-Martin; and decorations for the vintners' festival. Additionally, he exhibited woodcut engravings and designed furniture....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 September 1848, near Schaffhausen.

Draughtsman.

Jakob Billeter was a businessman until 1882, when he decided to study art at the college of industrial design in Winterthur and subsequently in Munich. He taught at the college of industrial design in Basel in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1838, in Nidfurn (Glarus canton).

Draughtsman.

Walter Blumer was initially an industrial art draughtsman in St-Maur, near Paris. In his purely artistic works, he was happiest drawing flowers from nature.

Article

Giles Waterfield

(b London, 1756; d London, Jan 7, 1811).

English painter and art collector of Swiss descent. Born to a family of Swiss watchmakers in London, Bourgeois was apprenticed as a boy to P. J. de Loutherbourg. The latter heavily influenced his art, which was to elevate him to membership of the Royal Academy in 1793. Bourgeois specialized in landscape and genre scenes and achieved recognition in his own day with works such as Tiger Hunt and William Tell (both c. 1790; London, Dulwich Pict. Gal.), but his works are no longer regarded as of any note.

Bourgeois was linked from an early age with Noël Desenfans, who in effect adopted him when his father left London for Switzerland. Desenfans promoted Bourgeois’s reputation as an artist and involved him in his own activities as a picture dealer. Bourgeois became passionately interested in buying paintings, and in the last 15 years of his life bought considerable numbers, sometimes creating financial problems for the partnership. His taste was characteristic of the traditional Grand Manner of his time, concentrating on the great names of the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly academic works and paintings of the Netherlandish schools....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

American, 19th century, male.

Born 6 November 1856, in Pennsylvania; died 1931.

Painter. Genre scenes, figures.

Jefferson David Chalfant was a pupil of Bourgereau, Robert-Fleury and Lefebvre in Paris. He exhibited The Old Watchmaker at the National Academy of Design of New York in 1898...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in the USA from 1940.

Born 4 August 1883, in Bordeaux; died 24 August 1950, in New York.

Decorative artist, architect, designer, draughtsman. Furniture.

Art Deco.

Pierre Chareau worked in France until 1939, then went to live in New York. He regularly participated in the Salon d'Automne and the Salon des Artistes Décorateurs in Paris. In ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 22 October 1878, in Vienna; died 30 July 1960, in Hamburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Designs (furniture/fabrics/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Wiener Werkstätte group.

Carl Otto Czeschka trained at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, most notably under Christian Griepenkerl. He was a member of the Vienna Secession. In ...

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Leominster, Hereford & Worcs, Sept 1, 1804; d London, Sept 29, 1845).

English painter. The son of a watchmaker, he was sent in 1818 to London, where he studied at De La Pierre’s Academy in Hackney; two years later he entered the Royal Academy Schools. In London he quickly won a reputation as a portrait painter. In 1824–5 he was commissioned to draw copies of the paintings hanging in the royal palaces, and he was also engaged by Sir Thomas Lawrence to make pencil versions of the latter’s portraits. From 1825 to 1828 he worked in Yorkshire, exhibiting 31 works at the Northern Society, Leeds. To the principal annual exhibitions in London he contributed only 27 works (mostly oils); the great majority of his pictures were commissioned by private patrons, above all the merchant John Hinxman, who at his death in 1846 owned 489 works by Davis.

From 1830 until 1842 he travelled widely in France, the Low Countries, Italy and Germany. His continental scenes have often been confused with those of Richard Parkes Bonington, Thomas Shotter Boys, James Holland (a companion on some of these trips) and William Callow. To a greater extent than these artists, however, Davis specialized (from the late 1820s) in delicately detailed interiors, in both oils and watercolour; his views of churches and picture galleries often contain small-scale representations of paintings that are clearly identifiable. A typical example is an ...

Article

Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 12 April 1871, in Berlin; died 15 April 1925, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland).

Draughtsman, architect, decorative artist, designer, illustrator, author. Furniture, jewellery, lamps, art objects.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

In Munich, August Endell studied philosophy, art history, aesthetics and psychology, notably a course run by Theodor Lipp on the psychological effect of the perception of lines and forms. There, in ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 17 April 1822, in Lyons; died c. 1889.

Sculptor, draughtsman, mosaicist. Furniture, religious furnishings, objets d'art.

Fichet was a pupil of Legendre Héral at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons from 1835 to 1837. He exhibited drawings, sculptures and Vessel for Holy Oil...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 17 July 1778, in Mulhouse; died 21 January 1852, in Mulhouse.

Painter. Still-lifes (flowers/fruit).

Fries studied in Paris under Jean-Baptiste Regnault; painted fruit and flowers and also dabbled in industrial design.

Paris, 9 June 1954: Basket of Fruit and Flowers with Background Landscape...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1801, in Geneva; died 6 April 1883, in Geneva.

Painter. Landscapes.

Formerly a watchmaker and photographer, George-Legrand trained under Diday and exhibited regularly in Geneva from 1837 to 1868. An exhibition of his work was held after his death.

Bern: ...