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Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

British, 20th century, female.

Born 13 May 1879, near London; died 7 April 1961, in Sussex.

Painter, engraver, illustrator, designer, graphic designer. Still-lifes, landscapes, portraits. Designs for wallpapers and fabrics, furniture, stage sets.

Bloomsbury Group, Omega Workshops, London Group, Euston Road School.

Vanessa Bell was the daughter of Sir Leslie Stephen, the sister of Virginia Woolf and the wife of the art historian Clive Bell. She started her training with the Royal Academician Sir Arthur Cope, and continued it at the Royal Academy of Art under the direction of the American portrait painter John Singer Sargent between 1900 and 1904....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1863, in Rolle (Vaud); died 1948, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Murals, designs for stained glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Ernest Bieler was the uncle of André Charles Bieler. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. He divided his time between the mountainous regions of the Valais and the shores of Lake Geneva; his body of work evokes the everyday life of the peasant communities in the Valais and the Canton of Vaud at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bieler was commissioned to paint compositions for the ceiling of the Victoria hall in Geneva; decorative panels and windows for the federal government building in Bern; stained glass windows for the Vevey church of St-Martin; and decorations for the vintners' festival. Additionally, he exhibited woodcut engravings and designed furniture....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 8 January 1930, in Lyons.

Engraver, draughtsman.

René Bord began his career as an industrial designer, but gravitated towards engraving in 1968. He exhibited at collective events like the Kanagawa Biennale at Yokohama in Japan, the Osaka Festival, the Cracow Biennale and the Paris Biennale, and he also exhibited in Italy. Bord made a medal to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Silk Workers' Revolt in Lyons in April ...

Article

Hana Larvová

(b Zohor, nr Bratislava, Dec 25, 1935; d Jan 20, 1997).

Slovak printmaker, painter and illustrator. From 1951 to 1955 he studied at the Central School of Industrial Art at Bratislava and at the School of Fine Arts, Bratislava, from 1956 to 1961, completing his training there in 1963–6. In 1967 he was put in charge of the book production department; in 1981 he was appointed professor. His early work as printmaker and illustrator derived its inspiration from the imaginative tradition of Slovak art, which he interpreted in his own version of neo-Surrealism. In 1964 Klee, Kandinsky and Miró began to influence his work, and his illustrations were clearly inspired by Chagall. He gradually developed his own version of Mannerism and adapted his artistic language accordingly, aiming, in his graphic work, at the precise technical mastery of lithography, etching etc. Among his first works with Mannerist traits is Honour to Arcimboldo (1965; see Peterajová, no. 18), and the style is fully developed in the cycle ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Toronto; died 1992.

Painter, watercolourist. Landscapes. Linocuts.

Group of Seven.

A. J. Casson grew up in Guelph and Hamilton, and began to take art lessons and work as a freelance commercial designer when his family moved to Toronto. At the age of 21, he began to work as a designer for Rous and Mann, under the supervision of artist Franklin Carmichael. Carmichael, a member of the ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in St-Nazaire; died 1964, in Étables-sur-Mer.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator, ethnologist. Genre scenes, local scenes, seascapes. Designs for jewellery, furniture.

Ar Seiz Breur.

René Yves Creston trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Nantes in 1919, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in ...

Article

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 1937, in Lucerne.

Draughtsman, engraver. Scenes with figures.

Eigenheer trained at the Lucerne school of industrial art and design, and at various private academies and schools in Paris, Florence and Rome. He lived in Lucerne. His subjects are extremely diverse and his compositions, which look rather like pages of sketches, are complex. Fear and nightmares are a common source of material for his works, in which the themes of mutilation and confinement recur frequently. He took part in the Biennale des Jeunes Artistes in Paris in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 15 February 1883, in Marktheidenfeld; died 15 February 1964, in Nuremberg.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Landscapes with figures, landscapes. Designs (ex-libris/fabrics/furniture/porcelain).

Jugendstil.

After losing his mother at a very early age, Hermann Gradl was brought up by his father's family, with one of his cousins, Hermann Gradl Sr, a Jugendstil artist who was highly thought of at the time. He was first trained at the Städtische Gewerbeschule, Munich, then in ...

Article

Paula Furby

(b Sept 28, 1884; d Adelaide, Oct 22, 1972).

Australian painter, printmaker and commercial artist. Henty studied in Adelaide at the School of Design, Painting and Technical Arts with H. P Gill (1855–1916) and Archibald Collins (1853–1922) and at the South Australian School of Arts and Crafts taking life classes with Marie Tuck (1866–1947). Henty exhibited with the Australian Academy of Art, the New South Wales Watercolour Institute, the Contemporary Art Society (CAS), Group 9 and the Royal South Australian Society of Arts (RSASA).

Henty is a relatively unacknowledged Adelaide modernist, who chafed under the conservatism of its art world. As a young woman she worked full-time as a ticket-writer and designer. She was a member of Archibald Collins’ Adelaide Drawing and Sketch Club in the 1920s and contributed line drawings to its magazine The High Light. Around 1924, after the club closed, Henty went to Sydney, again working as a commercial artist, but hoping for artistic inspiration from Sydney exhibitions. However, inspiration came in ...

Article

Serge Lemoine

(b Zurich, June 12, 1917).

Swiss painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied (1932) at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Zurich, and first worked as a designer (1933–6). From the age of 20 he concentrated on graphic and commercial art, and it was not until 1957, with the creation of his first ‘tableau-relief’, that his career really began. Painting abstract works influenced by Zurich Concrete art and by contemporary American painting from 1950 onwards, Honegger developed as an artist during his stay in New York (1958–60) where his first exhibition was held at the Martha Jackson Gallery in 1960. Honegger settled in Paris in 1961, where he continued to experiment in painting and sculpture. His pictures were composed following a system and use simple, geometric forms in relief, executed in monochrome but with particular attention to technique and surface presentation. His shapes (squares, circles) are placed inside an orthogonal frame, following a pattern established beforehand and always based on numerical calculation. The paintings are made up of sharp-edged cardboard pieces placed, with strengthened backing, on to canvas and covered with several layers of paint. In this manner, the artist obtained a relief effect on the surface that catches the light and gives the composition a changeable quality (e.g. ...

Article

(b The Hague, Dec 18, 1863; d The Hague, Aug 28, 1917).

Dutch painter, lithographer and designer. He trained at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague. He worked as a draughtsman at the Zoological Museum in Leiden and illustrated scientific studies, for instance On a New Collection of Birds from S. W. Africa by J. Büttikofer (1889) and Zoölogische Ergebnisse einer Reise in Niederl. Ost-Indiën, von dr. Max Weber (1890). Apart from paintings such as Two Arabian Vultures (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), he made many watercolours and drawings of plants and animals, which clearly reveal his appreciation of Japanese prints: he often outlined the separate areas of flat colour in ink, in imitation of such prints, and he could describe the characteristic attitudes of animals with a masterly economy of line. Van Hoytema compiled and published two portfolios of prints of related subjects, Dierstudies [Animal studies] (1898) and Bloemstudies [Flower studies] (1905). His powerful, decorative compositions show an unmatched technical perfection....

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 16 November 1892, in London; died 1957.

Painter, engraver, furniture designer, writer. Genre scenes, landscapes, architectural scenes.

Eric Hesketh Hubbard studied at Croydon School of Art, South Western Polytechnic and the Westminster School of Art. He became an accomplished printmaker, specialising in woodcuts and linocuts. Many of his works explore the life of gypsies and the fairground....

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1685, in Yorkshire; died 12 April 1748, in London.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, architect. History painting, portraits, architectural views, designs for furniture.

William Kent came from a poor family. He was apprenticed to a carriage painter but ran away and set himself up as a portrait painter in London around 1704. He made enough friends to gather sufficient funds for a trip to Rome in 1710. There, he became a pupil of Luti and won a second-class medal at the academy. When his money was about to run out, a compatriot guaranteed him a living of 40 pounds sterling for seven years. After a brief return to England, he came back to Rome again....

Article

Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...

Article

Susan Morris

(b Cologne, 1731; d Oxford, Dec 12, 1812).

English painter and printmaker of German birth. The son of a watchmaker, he moved to England c. 1754 and taught music and drawing in London, Lewes and Bristol before settling in Oxford as a drawing-master and leader of the band at the city’s Music Room. In 1763 he published 12 etchings of views near Oxford; further sets of etchings followed in 1771 and 1772. His only Royal Academy exhibit was a watercolour landscape, shown in 1773 when he was listed as an honorary exhibitor. There is no evidence that he sold his work. Nearly 500 drawings by Malchair are in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; these include unpretentious cottage subjects and panoramic views of the city (e.g. Oxford in Flood Time, from Shotover Hill, 1791) characterized by an atmospheric haziness achieved through blurred pencil lines and grey or pastel wash. Visits to north Wales in 1789, 1791 and 1795 encouraged him to use bolder grey washes, strong pencil lines and vertiginous mountain compositions as, for example, in ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 15 April 1895, in Loudéac, Brittany; died 2 September 1926.

Painter, engraver (wood), illustrator, designer. Frescoes, designs for embroidery and glazed earthenware, furniture.

Ar Seiz Breur group (The Seven Brothers).

Jeanne Malivel studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and then entered the les ateliers d'art sacré of Maurice Denis and Georges Desvallières. Upon her return to Brittany, she became a course instructor at the École Régionale des Beaux-Arts in Rennes in ...

Article

Rosemarie L. Tovell

(b nr Paisley, Ont., Jan 8, 1882; d Bancroft, Ont., Dec 26, 1953).

Canadian painter and printmaker. He studied at the Art Students League in New York (1903–5), supporting himself as a commercial artist. His voracious appetite for the avant-garde led him to examine all that was available in New York, particularly the French modernists at Alfred Stieglitz’s 291 Gallery. His strong and personal style incorporated aspects of the work of the American and French Impressionists, Whistler, Cézanne, Maurice Prendergast and the Fauves. Milne exhibited his works in watercolour societies in New York and Philadelphia from 1909 to 1916. He was one of two Canadians represented in the Armory Show (1913) and he won a silver medal at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915, San Francisco). The chief work of his New York period is Billboard (1912; Ottawa, N.G.)

Milne moved to rural Boston Corners, NY, in 1916. Working with a more limited palette and looser, fluid brushwork, he began to depict the same landscape subjects in oil and watercolour under varying climatic conditions. In early ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 23 March 1823, in Mulhouse; died 29 December 1876, in Nogent-sur-Marne.

Painter, draughtsman. Flowers. Designs for tapestries, designs (wallpapers/furniture).

Édouard Müller's family had been engravers since the 18th century. In 1838 he studied under Henri Lebert before working in Paris with a Russian painter called Ladweze ...

Article

Bengt von Bonsdorff

(b Helsinki, Aug 19, 1924).

Finnish painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied at the Central School of Industrial Arts in Helsinki (1946–9) and practised drawing at the Free Art School. His earliest work consisted mostly of figure drawings and still-lifes (e.g. the coloured wood engraving Chair Still-life, 1946; see 1982 exh. cat., no. 1). He was drawn to Synthetic Cubism in the spirit of Juan Gris and to faces and masks similar to those in the works of Picasso or in non-Western art. These representations soon gave way to the purely abstract. Nordström first exhibited in 1947 at Nuorten näyttely (‘Exhibition by young artists’; Helsinki, A. Exh. Hall). Two years later he held his first one-man exhibition. It was the first in Finland that consisted entirely of paintings influenced by Constructivism. Nordström developed his abstract programme in a very short time at the end of the 1940s and the beginning of the 1950s. It was then that the foundation of his painting was laid, both technically and formally. This also applied to the prints and three-dimensional constructions, which were small at first (e.g. the coloured wood engraving ...