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Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1954, in Villecresnes (Essonne).

Painter (gouache), pastellist, sculptor. Frescoes, monuments.

Lydie Arickx was a pupil at the college of graphic arts in Paris from 1974 to 1978. Line and colour combine in her work to produce violent Expressionism, at times bordering on cruelty, even in love, though all she is seeking in the figures she portrays, flayed alive, is their spirit, as she herself asserts. Her work shows the influence of Egon Schiele, Otto Dix and Georges Grosz, but above all, especially in her use of pastel, of Francis Bacon and Luis Cabellero. In ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 5 December 1969, in Aix-en-Provence.

Painter, sculptor.

After studying in Tunisia, and having participated in several theatrical and cinematographic activities, Marie Ophélie Asselin de Williencourt settled in France in 1988. In 1991 and 1922, she pursued her studies at the Versailles École des Beaux-Arts. She was a founder member of the association ...

Article

Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Kraków, July 25, 1953).

Polish sculptor and poster designer. Between 1973 and 1978 he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw in the sculpture studio of Jerzy Jarnuszkiewicz. From 1978 he exhibited and took part in sculptural symposia (on marble and granite) in Poland, Italy, France and Germany. Between 1976 and 1981 he designed posters for the Laboratory Theatre (Teatr Laboratorium) of Jerzy Grotowski.

Bednarski became one of the leading representatives in Poland of the ‘new sculpture’ of the 1980s. He produced individual sculptures (up to the early 1980s in small numbers) and later tended towards installations and performances. Several recurrent elements (e.g. the plaster head of Karl Marx in different arrangements and variants shown at exhibitions in 1978, 1986 and 1988) and repeated motifs are evident in his work. He often drew on literature (Herman Melville and Joseph Brodsky) and on the realities of Polish Communism, usually employing familiar signs and symbols. These equivocal and diverse sculptures and installations are primarily autobiographical. His most important installation, ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1 February 1960, in New York.

Sculptor, assemblage artist, graphic artist.

Nayland Blake studied at Bard College, Annandale on Hudson, NY, receiving his BFA there. In 1984 he obtained a MFA from the California Institute of Arts in Valencia, CA. Blake is a conceptual artist, concentrating primarily on themes of racial, sexual and personal identities, with emphasis on the threat of AIDS and the gay identity. His early works, such as ...

Article

Dutch, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France since 1980.

Born 21 July 1951, in Haarlem.

Painter, engraver, sculptor. Figures.

Hans Bouman trained in illustration and advertising at the school of graphics in Amsterdam, then at the Gerrit Rietveldt Academie in Amsterdam (1973-1978). In parallel, he works for magazines and in advertising. In ...

Article

Margarita González Arredondo

(b Mexico City, June 10, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, illustrator and stage designer. He was self-taught when he took up painting in 1956 with the encouragement of Diego Rivera, but from 1956 to 1960 he studied graphic design with Gordon Jones. During those years he worked in an Abstract Expressionist manner, although he soon incorporated figurative elements and, from c. 1963, elements of fantasy. In 1967 he went to Paris on a French government grant. In the following year he was a founder-member of the Salón Independiente, where he began to exhibit acrylic sculptures of the female torso. These were followed between 1974 and 1976 by a series entitled Mutations, in which he explored the possibilities of the cube and which opened the way to later sculptures and paintings in which geometry is balanced with sensuality. Venus and Mars (Mexico City, U. N. Autónoma) is one of the best of his public sculptures. He also worked as a stage designer, for example on a production in ...

Article

Wojciech Włodarczyk

(b Radzymin, nr Warsaw, April 19, 1943).

Polish painter, draughtsman and sculptor. Between 1963 and 1970 he studied painting with Eugeniusz Arct (b 1899) and Eugeniusz Eibisch and graphic art with Józef Pakulski at the Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw. He exhibited at home and abroad from 1971 (e.g. at the Fifth Biennial, Sydney, 1984; the Nouvelle Biennale, Paris, 1985; and Documenta, Kassel, 1986).

Dwurnik’s work is usually grouped in related cycles over a period of years (e.g. Hitch-hiking, 1966; Workers, 1975; and Cross, 1979), forming an epic record of Polish life from the 1970s and 1980s. Dwurnik, without overstatement, documented specific places and events, producing a faithful, albeit almost gloomy and grotesque picture of Poland. His drawings of workers (1980–81) during the era of the rise of the independent trade union, Solidarnośc (Solidarity), brought him considerable publicity. Although his work belongs to the time of the revival of painting in Poland in the 1970s (two of his student colleagues were Łukasz Korolkiewicz and Tomasz Ciecierski), critics tended to associate his work principally with the ‘new’ and ‘wild’ (Pol. ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 30 May 1931, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic artist, printmaker, lithographer. Still-lifes, figures.

Audrey Flack studied at the Cooper Union, New York (1948-1951); Yale University, New Haven (BFA, 1952) with Jossef Albers; the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University (1953); and the Art Students League, New York, under Robert Beverly Hale. She has taught in New York at the Pratt Institute and New York University (1960-1968); the Riverside Museum Master Institute (1966-1967); the School of Visual Arts (1970-1974); and the National Academy of Design (from 1987). Flack has been Albert Dorne Professor at University of Bridgeport, CT (1975); Mellon Professor at the Cooper Union, New York (1982); C. & R. Smith Distinguished Visiting Professor, George Washington University (1992); and Visiting Professor, University of Pennsylvania Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia (1994). She has served on the boards of directors of the College Art Association of America (1989-1994), the Wonder Woman Foundation, and Interns for Peace....

Article

Palestinian, 20th–21st century, female.

Active in England since 1975.

Born 1952, in Beirut.

Sculptor, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Mona Hatoum studied graphic design at Beirut University College before settling in London in 1975, during civil war in Lebanon. In London she studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art and the Slade School of Fine Art. In the 1980s she began making video and performance works incorporating themes of exile and the body, such as ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 30 July 1940, in El Paso (Texas); died 13 June 2006, in Hondo, in a studio accident.

Sculptor, printmaker, graphic artist. Figures.

As a child, Luis Jiménez learned welding and spray-painting in his father's sign shop. He studied at the University of Texas in Austin, obtaining a BS in art and architecture in ...

Article

Canadian First Nations (Dunne-Zaa/Beaver), 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1970, in Fort St. John (British Columbia).

Sculpture, painting, graphic art, mixed media, installation art.

Born in rural British Columbia in 1970, Jungen was actively interested in drawing as a child. Both his mother (Dunne-Zaa) and father (Swiss-Canadian) died when he was young. After high school, he moved to Vancouver and completed a Diploma in Visual Art at Emily Carr College of Art in ...

Article

South African, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 28 April 1955, in Johannesburg.

Draughtsman, engraver, graphic designer, film producer, sculptor, theatre and opera designer and producer. Multimedia, animated films.

Land Art.

Although William Kentridge has practised his creativity in many domains and in a wide range of media (animated films, land art, sculpture, printmaking, theatre and opera design and production, installations), it is chiefly his large-scale charcoal drawings in process (drawing for animation) and his unique, short, animated films and their projection that have given him international fame....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 6 October 1950, in St-Nazaire.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor. Figures, nudes, landscapes. Busts.

Cyril de La Patellière studied art in Nice. At first he was a graphic designer for posters before devoting himself to painting and watercolours, and to sculpture in bronze and marble ...

Article

Spanish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1950, in Valencia.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist, designer. Scenes with figures, interiors, landscapes, still-lifes, animals.

Javier Mariscal studied graphic art in Barcelona before collaborating on various newspaper cartoon strips. He lives and works in Valencia. Over the years, his production has become diversified and he works as a graphic artist, designer, stylist, logo designer, furniture designer, painter, poster artist, draughtsman and sculptor. In a light tone, he applies himself to recreating his era in brightly coloured images, with its fashion, frippery and frivolity. He frequently takes Barcelona as his theme, adopting different techniques including acrylic on paper, paint on glass and paint on fabric. He created the character Cobi, mascot for the ...

Article

Deborah A. Hoover

(Bwalwa)

(b Mwense, 1961).

Zambian painter, sculptor, graphic artist and administrator. He received a diploma in the teaching of art from Evelyn Hone College, Lusaka (1989), and obtained both his BA (1998) and MA (1999) in Fine Art from Middlesex University, London. He worked as a cartographer (1985–6) for the World Health Organization at TDRC and taught art from 1990 to 1992. Since then he has been active in the arts community, initiating grassroots and high-level projects. He founded the Zambia National Visual Arts Council (1989) and managed the Henry Tayali Centre (1994), proposed ‘Nimbile’ as a name for the Mbile Workshop (1992) and established regional and international art links. In 1994 he travelled to the US on an Art Administration study tour sponsored by the US Information Services (USIS). In addition to his own studio practice, he curated national and international exhibitions, mounting the first contemporary art exhibition to inaugurate the new National Museum in Lusaka (...

Article

Amy Fox

(b New York, 1955).

American graphic designer, sculptor, and painter. Growing up on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, Morla was introduced to the rich culture of New York City at an early age, seeing the Andy Warhol exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum, visiting many museums, and drawing from her own Spanish heritage, quickly gaining an appreciation for culture and the arts. Morla enjoyed drawing and went on to study art at the University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT, in the early 1970s, at the height of the conceptual art movement. Morla learnt the tenets of conceptual art at Hartford, and while this did not give her the opportunity to improve her drawing skills as she expected, it taught her to illustrate concept without image. Sensing that her skills lay in the field of graphic design, she transferred to Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, where she obtained a BFA in Graphic Design. After graduation she accepted a job in the late 1970s as senior designer for KQED, San Francisco’s Public Broadcasting System (PBS) Station; a job that taught her to work with sound and motion and to stay within a limited budget. She left KQED to work as an art director at Levi-Strauss & Company, where she learnt the art of communicating the design process to co-workers who did not necessarily understand design or the design process. It was a skill Morla found useful when she began working with clients in her own company....

Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Melbourne, May 9, 1958).

Australian sculptor. He spent 20 years in Australian and British television and advertising, where he was already making the mannequins that he later adapted to sculptural purposes. He started his artistic career when collaborating with his mother-in-law, Paula Rego for the Spellbound exhibition at the Hayward Gallery in 1996, for which he made a Pinocchio figure. Introduced by Rego to Charles Saatchi, who immediately began to collect his work, Mueck took part in the exhibition Sensation at the Royal Academy in 1997 with mixed media sculpture Dead Dad (1996–7; London, Saatchi Gal.), an unsettling illusionistic rendition of his own deceased father, half life-size. Made from memory, the sculpture became as much the focus for a strong emotional involvement as it was a mere object treated with Mueck’s rigorous eye for detail. As the artist explained, the miniaturized representation proved a more emotionally involving depiction of death (an initial study was done in full scale) by compelling the beholder to ‘cradle’ the corpse visually. His concern with illusionistic verisimilitude has been linked to the uncompromising Northern tradition of portraiture exemplified by Jan van Eyck or Hans Holbein (ii). Mueck sculpts in clay, makes a plaster mould around it and finally replaces the clay with a mixture of fibreglass, silicone and resin; the technical skill involved, though taken for granted by the artist himself, has often been foregrounded by critics to the detriment of its content. Such psychological density was evident in ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in New York City.

Born 18 September 1951, in Santa Monica (California).

Sculptor, installation artist, performance artist, poster artist.

Computer Art (Virtual Art).

Matt Mullican attended the California Institute of the Arts, Valencia, where he studied with the conceptual artist John Baldessari, obtaining a BFA in ...

Article

Francis Summers

(b Madrid, June 17, 1953; d Ibiza, Aug 28, 2001).

Spanish sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He was educated at Central School of Art and Design, London (1979), Croydon School of Art (1980–82) and the Pratt Graphic Centre, New York (1982–3). His work deals primarily with the figure and usually takes the form of cast sculptures and delicate drawings. Muñoz’s art seemed to derive more from a classical or Baroque sensibility than from a purely contemporary one, working within a language of interior spaces, muteness and absence. The figure sculptures are defined by a seemingly realistic rendering that harbours discrepancies such as their diminutive scale, blinded eyes or blurred faces. The drawings concentrate more on caricatures or empty rooms, as in his ‘Raincoat Drawings’ (1989–94; see 1996 exh. cat., pp. 70–78). His earliest sculptures took the form of balconies and banisters, placed in inappropriate places in a gallery. Minarette for Otto Kurz, (1985...

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1946, in Manitoba.

Painter (acrylics/gouache), graphic artist (silk screen prints), sculptor (bronze). Figures, Native American subjects.

Maxine Noel is a Native artist, whose Lakota name Ioyan Mani means 'Walk Beyond'. After spending her early years on the Birdtail Reservation with her Santee Oglala Sioux parents she attended an Indian residential school. After a short period as a legal secretary she took a course in advanced design, eventually devoting herself full-time to her work in art. She has dedicated herself to the promotion of Native artists through serving as a board member, consultant or artistic director for institutions such as Native Earth Performing Arts, the Canadian Native Arts Foundation, and the Association for Native Development in the Performing and Visual Arts. She has also participated as a panel member at the Saskatchewan School of Fine Arts, at the University of Western Ontario in London, and in the Native programme at the Ontario College of Art....