J. M. Marsden
(b Market Drayton, Salop, 1725; d London, Nov 22, 1774).
English soldier, patron and collector. Known to posterity as Clive of India, he was the son of a minor Shropshire squire and rose through the ranks of the British East India Company to become Governor of Bengal. During his time in India he amassed a large collection of Mughal decorative art and miniature paintings (Powis Castle, Powys, NT). Determined to use his foreign fortune to enhance his family’s status and influence at home, Clive employed Sir William Chambers to make alterations at his two properties in Shropshire, Styche Hall (1762–6) and Walcot Hall (1764–7), as well as to his London house, 45 Berkeley Square (1763–7).
In 1769 Clive began building a Palladian villa, Claremont, Surrey, to the designs of Lancelot Brown and Henry Holland, and in 1771 he bought Oakly Park, Ludlow, Salop. That year he started to collect Old Master paintings for Claremont; his principal adviser in this was ...
(b Givry, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, Jan 4, 1747; d Paris, April 28, 1825).
French museum director, writer, graphic artist, collector, archaeologist and diplomat. He was the son of a provincial aristocrat. He went to Paris to further his law studies c. 1765 but entered the studio of Noël Hallé. He became Gentleman-in-Ordinary to Louis XV and was appointed keeper of the collection of engraved gems and medals that Mme de Pompadour had left to the King. In 1772 he entered the diplomatic service as attaché to the French embassy at St Petersburg, he was subsequently posted to Stockholm, Geneva (where his disrespectful engraving Repast at Ferney, of 4 July 1775, angered Voltaire) and, from spring 1776, Naples. There he became acquainted with Sir William Hamilton, the British ambassador, and made many drawings of his future wife Emma. Denon began to acquire a diverse collection of paintings and engravings as well as antiquities from excavations at Nola, Catania, Agrigento, Pompeii and Herculaneum. He purchased the painting of the ...
French family of typographers, printers, publishers and collectors. The first to settle in Paris was Denis Didot (2nd half of 17th century), whose son François Didot (1689–1759) founded in 1713 the family publishing business. His sons François-Ambroise Didot (1730–1804) and Pierre-François Didot (1731–93) developed the business, adding a type foundry and a paper-mill. The elegance of their publications brought them the patronage of the brothers of Louis XVI: Monsieur (later Louis XVIII) and the Comte d’Artois (later Charles X). The sons of François-Ambroise included (1) Pierre Didot, a publisher, among whose illustrators were some of the most distinguished artists of the day, and Firmin Didot (1764–1836), who designed the Didot typeface for his brother’s use. Firmin Didot’s son (2) Ambroise Firmin-Didot was a notable collector of prints. The cadet branch of the family, Didot Jeune, the descendants of Pierre-François Didot, included (3) ...