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F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

In 

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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

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Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

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M. I. Andreyev

Estate situated 20 km west of Moscow. It was first recorded in 1537 as the village of Upolzy, and renamed Arkhangel’skoye after a brick church dedicated to the Archangel Michael was built in 1667 to replace a wooden one. From 1703 to 1810 the estate belonged to the princes Golitsyn and from 1810 to 1917 to the princes Yusupov, notably Yusupov family, §1. In 1919 it became a museum-estate.

One of the finest Russian palace and park ensembles, Arkhangel’skoye has as its nucleus a Neo-classical palace, connected to the two wings set in front of the main façade by powerful Tuscan colonnades. It was built by local serf craftsmen between 1780 and 1790 to a plan by the French architect Charles de Guerney. The strict symmetry of the palace’s architecture is underscored by the severe belvedere and central portico with four Ionic columns; on the opposite side, overlooking the park, the projection of an oval room, decorated with a pair of Ionic columns, echoes the portico. In ...

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Kathleen Russo

In 

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Susan B. Taylor

(b Paris, April 12, 1744; d Paris, May 1, 1818).

French architect and landscape designer. He had a distinguished career as a royal architect at the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI. Although his fame rests on his accomplishments as a landscape architect, his mercurial talents are perhaps best characterized in his drawings for interior decoration and court festivals. After studying physics under the Abbé Nollet at the Collège de Navarre, Bélanger attended the Académie Royale d’Architecture in Paris between 1764 and 1766 where he worked under Julien-David Le Roy and Pierre Contant d’Ivry. He was not a successful student and left without achieving the illustrious Prix de Rome. Nevertheless, under Le Roy’s influence he was involved with the circle of Neo-classical artists, including Charles-Louis Clérisseau, who had recently returned from Italy. In 1767 Bélanger became a Dessinateur du Roi at the Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs under Charles Michel-Ange Challe. Since the Menus Plaisirs were responsible for the temporary decorations and stage scenery for court festivities, Bélanger was involved with preparations for the marriage celebrations in ...

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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

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Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

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(bapt Kirkharle, Northumb., Aug 30, 1716; d London, Feb 6, 1783).

English landscape gardener and architect.

Following his schooling at the nearby village of Cambo, Brown was first employed c. 1732 by Sir William Loraine of Kirkharle, who was then extending his grounds and remodelling the house. Here Brown learnt the rudiments of building and land management and in time was entrusted with laying out extensions to the garden. At Kirkharle, Loraine rebuilt the village on a new and more distant site and, with Brown’s assistance, laid out extensive lawns, flanking them with massive plantations in which several thousand trees of contrasting foliage were introduced. Scarcely a trace remains of this transformation, but a descendant of Loraine recorded that it was Brown’s ‘first landscape work’ and led to him being consulted on other gardens in the area towards the end of the decade.

In about 1739 Brown decided to make a career for himself further south, and his first known commission (...

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Aonghus Mackechnie

(b Perthshire, 1625; d 1710).

Scottish architect and garden designer. He was the younger son of Robert Bruce of Blairhall, Perthshire, and probably attended St Salvator’s College, St Andrews, in 1637–8. Bruce was interested in the arts and was reputed to be well versed in languages, but it was as a politician that he first achieved recognition. He played a significant role in General Monk’s conversion to the Royalist cause in 1659 and was a confidential messenger between the Scottish Lords and Charles II in the months preceding the Restoration. Shortly after 1660 he was knighted, and through John Maitland, 2nd Earl and 1st Duke of Lauderdale—whose second wife was a full cousin of Bruce’s—he obtained various minor though lucrative employments before his appointment in 1671 as Surveyor-General of the Royal Works in Scotland (the ancient post of Master of the Royal Works, which had been re-created specifically for the rebuilding of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in Edinburgh), which he held until ...

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Peter Fidler

[Marcell Armand]

(b Vincennes, 1730; d Vienna, Nov 2, 1786).

French architect and landscape designer, active in Austria. He trained in Paris under Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, whom he followed to Vienna in 1760. There he worked for the Crown Prince (later Emperor Joseph II (reg 1765–90)), and in 1776 he became Court Architect with responsibility for work in the suburbs of Vienna. Besides numerous architectural monuments, including a triumphal arch (1765) in Innsbruck, Canevale was also commissioned by the Emperor to design several private buildings, as well as summer houses for him in the Prater district of Vienna (1781–4) and on the Laaerberg (1786). Canevale also redesigned the Allgemeines Krankenhaus (the ‘Narrenturm’; 1783), the Josephinum (1783–5), a military medical school founded by the Emperor, and the anatomical theatre in the old university, all in Vienna (see Austria, Federal Republic of §II 4.). Other works included the garden ‘castle’ known as ‘Josephstöckl’ (...

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Richard John

[Carrogis, Louis]

(b Paris, Aug 15, 1717; d Paris, Dec 26, 1806).

French draughtsman, designer and writer. He began his career as tutor to children of nobility, among them those of the Duc de Luynes at the château of Dampierre, where in 1754 he redesigned the park in the English manner. During the Seven Years’ War he worked as a topographical artist for Pons de Saint-Maurice and made portraits and caricatures of the soldiers in his regiment. Pons de Saint-Maurice recommended him to Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), who in 1763 appointed him lecteur to his son Philippe, Duc de Chartres. Carmontelle quickly became involved in all aspects of the ducal household, notably in the theatre; he wrote ‘proverbes’ (playlets illustrating a moral point) for it and supervised their production to his own designs. His texts were published as Proverbes dramatiques between 1768 and 1787, but his illustrations to them remained unpublished until 1933 (original drawings at Chantilly, Mus. Condé). He also recorded the members of the ducal household at the Palais Royal and at Villers-Cotterets in a series of portrait drawings, in pencil and watercolour or gouache. These were made rapidly, often in less than two hours, and almost all show the sitter full-length in profile. They are an invaluable record of both courtiers and distinguished visitors, such as the young ...

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Jörg Garms

[Reggia]

Large 18th-century palazzo situated in Italian town of Caserta, the successor of ancient and medieval Capua. The town is the capital of a province of the Campania region and is situated 28 km from Naples. Its growth dates from the 19th century. The Bourbon king Charles VII of Naples (from 1759 King Charles III of Spain) decided to make Caserta the site of a royal residence in imitation of Versailles. His choice was based on the excellent local hunting and the vulnerability of his palazzo at Naples in the event of a popular uprising or an attack from the sea. The building was designed by Luigi Vanvitelli and executed between 1752 and 1772. It was inhabitable from 1775 onwards and in the late 1770s and during the 1780s such artists as Fidele Fischetti and Domenico Mondo produced frescoes for various rooms (e.g. Mondo’s Classical Heroes, 1781, for the overdoors of the Sala delle Dame, and ...

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Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

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Cinzia Maria Sicca

English 18th-century Palladian villa c. 12 km west of central London in Chiswick, in the Greater London borough of Hounslow. The villa was built in 1725–9 for Boyle family, §2, 3rd Earl of Burlington, to his own designs, in grounds laid out from 1715; the interior decoration and furnishings were largely the work of William Kent, who also added to the gardens in the 1730s.

In 1704 Burlington inherited the Chiswick estate, consisting of a Jacobean house set in formal, walled grounds of 11 ha, but it was not until he returned from a visit to Italy in 1715 that he turned his attention to Chiswick. Initially, he refronted the existing house with a classical façade of three bays surmounted by a shallow pediment. In 1719 Burlington once more visited Italy, including the Veneto, in order to see buildings by Palladio at first hand, and in 1725 he began building a Palladian villa (...

Article

French royal palace c. 75 km north of Paris, in the département of Oise. Compiègne has been a royal residence since the 7th century, when it was used by Merovingian kings. The present building was begun (1751) for Louis XV, King of France, by Anges-Jacques Gabriel. It was finished (1786) for Louis XVI by Le Dreux de la Châtre (b 1721) to Gabriel’s plans. The plan is trapezoidal, with the garden front placed at an oblique angle to the cour d’honneur, a complexity necessitated by the awkwardness of the site. The cour d’honneur is in Gabriel’s plain style, the emphasis being on continuous horizontals with few curved elements. The elevation comprises two high storeys of equal height beneath an attic. A classical tetrastyle pavilion front with a pediment rises in the centre; a flattened version of this motif, using pilasters, is used on the upper part of the end pavilions of the side wings of the ...

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Françoise Hamon

(b Paris, May 11, 1698; d Paris, Oct 1, 1777).

French architect. He belonged to a family of gardeners from Ivry, in the inner suburbs of Paris. He did not make the traditional trip to Italy to complete his education and appears to have learnt his trade with Nicolas Dulin.

The career and works of Contant are known chiefly from the praise of his contemporaries and through the publication of his executed buildings and designs, the Oeuvres d’architecture (1769), which includes drawings dating from 1739 onwards. This collection of 71 engravings has no written text, and many of the designs for doors and fountains are difficult to identify or date. The fountains are characterized by the use of a generally Baroque vocabulary: various types of rustication, columns with alternating bands, rockwork etc. The triumphal arches, on the other hand, remain close to the style of the reign of Louis XIV (see Louis XIV style).

Contant worked independently for the first time in ...

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Patrick A. Snadon

(b New York, July 24, 1803; d Orange, NJ, Jan 14, 1892).

American architect. From the 1830s to the 1850s he was one of the most influential architects in the USA. His work ranges from major government and institutional buildings to ornamental garden structures; his main contribution to American architecture was his introduction of the European Picturesque in his designs for Italianate and Gothic Revival country houses and cottages. With his partner, Ithiel Town, he also refined and popularized the American Greek Revival. He revolutionized American architectural drawing through rendering buildings in romantic landscapes rather than in the analytical, Neo-classical style that preceded him. In 1836 he helped form the American Institution of Architects and advanced professionalism in American architecture through his scrupulous office practices, being, for example, the first American architect to use printed, standardized specifications.

At the age of 16, Davis left school in New York to work as a type compositor in Alexandria, VA. During this time, probably influenced by reading contemporary Gothic novels, he made drawings of prison and castle interiors akin to Piranesi’s engravings of imaginary prisons. In ...

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Mario Bencivenni

(b Florence, Feb 14, 1778; d Florence, Feb 22, 1843).

Italian architect, landscape designer and teacher. He studied architecture at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence under Gasparo Maria Paoletti, the leader of the Tuscan Neo-classical school, and won prizes for his projects in 1797; in 1801 he became a professor of architecture there and presented a project for a Pantheon of famous men to the Accademia. In 1803 he began to work for the Tuscan state, making important contacts in the Napoleonic period at a time when he is known to have become a freemason. His first important commission, received from the Accademia di Belle Arti, was the remodelling of the famous Cappella di S Luca (1810–13) in SS Annunziata, Florence, as part of a project to transform the convent into the new seat of the French bishop. Following the restoration in 1814 of the House of Lorraine to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he played a prime role in the reconstruction of the Scrittoio delle Reali Fabbriche, first as Secretary, then Director (...

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Kathleen Russo

(b Paris, c. 1670; d Paris, April 9, 1751).

French architect. His first known work was the Hôtel d’Etampes (1704; destr.), Paris. The high, narrow building with a mansard roof, Classical orders ornamenting the avant-corps of both the court and garden façades and irrationally low attached side wings differed in its proportions from his later works, lending some credibility to Jacques-François Blondel’s suggestion that it was actually designed by the Sicilian Duke Fornari. More typical of Dulin was his best-known work, the Hôtel Dunoyer (1708; destr. 1847), Paris, commissioned by an arms dealer. The central section of this balanced and elegant two-storey building was emphasized by the high, pitched roof that crowned the avant-corps, contrasting with the flat, balustraded roof of the rest of the corps de logis. The decorative features of this work included two putti shown as lovers, positioned at each end of the roof, and sculpted busts in the wide window piers of the upper storey. This building, called a ...