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Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Died 1632.

Painter. Landscapes.

Antwerp School.

Jasper Adriaensen was a free master of the Guild of St Luke. When the landscape artist Abraham Goyvaerts died, leaving his work unfinished, friends of Adriaensen implored him to finish Goyvaerts's paintings - a testimony to the esteem in which he was held as an artist....

Article

Italian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Romec.1620.

Born 1570, in Sorrento.

Painter. Landscapes.

A pupil of Roncali known as 'delle Pomarancie', Giuseppe Agellio possessed remarkable talent as a landscape artist and was often employed by painters of that period to execute the landscapes and backgrounds of their works. He also demonstrated great ability in the painting of architectural motifs....

Article

Carola Hicks

English country house near Woodstock, Oxon, designed by John Vanbrugh for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. It was begun in 1705 and completed c. 1725. The gardens, initially laid out by Vanbrugh and Henry Wise, were largely redesigned in 1764–74 by ‘Capability’ Brown. Blenheim Palace is regarded as one of the finest examples of English Baroque architecture. It was a gift to the Duke from a grateful Crown and nation to commemorate his victory in 1704 over the French and Bavarians at Blenheim (now Blindheim) during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The intention was to create a public monument symbolizing the glory of Britain and a palace fit for a hero, rather than a building on a domestic scale. This is reflected in Vanbrugh’s dramatic and monumental design, inspired by both English and French architecture, which developed the style he had begun to formulate in his earlier work at Castle Howard, N. Yorks. In both undertakings he was assisted by ...

Article

Jörg Garms

[Reggia]

Large 18th-century palazzo situated in Italian town of Caserta, the successor of ancient and medieval Capua. The town is the capital of a province of the Campania region and is situated 28 km from Naples. Its growth dates from the 19th century. The Bourbon king Charles VII of Naples (from 1759 King Charles III of Spain) decided to make Caserta the site of a royal residence in imitation of Versailles. His choice was based on the excellent local hunting and the vulnerability of his palazzo at Naples in the event of a popular uprising or an attack from the sea. The building was designed by Luigi Vanvitelli and executed between 1752 and 1772. It was inhabitable from 1775 onwards and in the late 1770s and during the 1780s such artists as Fidele Fischetti and Domenico Mondo produced frescoes for various rooms (e.g. Mondo’s Classical Heroes, 1781, for the overdoors of the Sala delle Dame, and ...

Article

Charles Saumarez Smith

English country house in N. Yorks built (1701–24) by John Vanbrugh for Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle; the gardens were laid out by George London during the same period. One of the largest, grandest and, architecturally, most important country houses in England, Castle Howard was first planned in October 1698, when the 3rd Earl took out a lease for life on the ruinous Henderskelfe Castle (burnt 1693; destr. 1724) and its manor from his grandmother, Anne Howard, Countess of Carlisle. The following spring he consulted the architect William Talman, Comptroller of Works to William III, on the design for a house to replace the old castle of Henderskelfe, but during the summer Talman was supplanted by the playwright John Vanbrugh. Castle Howard was Vanbrugh’s first important architectural commission. A model in wood was shown to the King in the summer of 1700, and work on the hill-top site began in the spring of ...

Article

P. F. Smith

English country house and garden, near Bakewell, Derbys. The estate was purchased in 1549 by Sir William Cavendish (1505–57) and his wife, Elizabeth Talbot, later Countess of Shrewsbury, and the courtyard house was built from 1552. The 3rd Earl of Devonshire (1617–84) remodelled the interior and refenestrated the house (1676–80). The 1st Duke of Devonshire rebuilt it in stages between 1686 and 1706, following the plan of the earlier house (see Cavendish family §(1)). The four distinct fronts, each articulated with a giant order and topped with a balustrade, are among the finest and earliest Baroque façades in England: the south and west fronts are boldly ornamented with sculptural details, and the curved north façade shows strong Italian influence.

The south wing (1687–9), designed by William Talman (see Talman family, §1), contains the second-floor State Apartments and the chapel. In the State Drawing Room the ceiling (...

Article

Wilhelmina Halsema-Kubes

(b ?Abbeville, Somme; fl 1714–56).

French sculptor, active in the northern Netherlands. His earliest known works are two signed and very elegant Louis XIV garden vases decorated with allegories of the seasons (1714; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.); they were commissioned by David van Mollem (1670–1746), a silk merchant, who was laying out a fine garden for the country house on his estate of Zijdebalen, near Utrecht. Cressant’s name is first mentioned in Utrecht c. 1730–31 in connection with his statue of Justice for the Stadhuis; it is now in the Paleis van Justitie in Utrecht. The many commissions for garden sculpture that Cressant received from van Mollem probably account for his settling in Utrecht: other artists who made sculptures and vases for these gardens are Jan-Baptiste Xavery, Jan van der Mast (fl c. 1736) and J. Matthijsen. Cressant made for van Mollem, among other things, vases, putti and a wooden Neptune: very little of this work survives....

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Born c. 1586, probably in Rotterdam; died c. 1624.

Painter. Landscapes.

Willem Decker II was almost certainly the son of the landscape artist Jan Willemsz Decker. He was married to Barbara Symondsdr by 1609. In 1614 he disposed of his work through a lottery and died of the plague with his wife and four children. Hans Jordaens painted the figures in one of his landscapes....

Article

Gisela Vits

(bapt Dachau, Feb 4, 1687; d Munich, Feb 23, 1745).

German architect. His family had been gardeners in the service of the Electors of Bavaria for several generations, and Effner also trained as a gardener in Paris from 1706. However, with the permission of Elector Maximilian II Emanuel, then living in exile in France, he soon transferred to architecture and became a pupil of Germain Boffrand. Effner collaborated with Boffrand on the decoration (1713) of the château of St Cloud for Maximilian Emanuel II before returning to Munich with the Elector in 1715. As a court architect and, after the death of Enrico Zuccalli, as Chief Court Architect, Effner controlled architectural projects at the court in Munich. At first he altered and extended existing castles in the Munich area, including the Schloss at Dachau, where he also laid out the court garden, the hunting-lodge at Fürstenried and above all Schloss Nymphenburg (see Munich §IV 3.), which he enlarged considerably. Effner also worked on the plans for the park at Nymphenburg and created three pavilions there: the Pagodenburg (...

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Born at the beginning of the 17th century, in Florence.

Landscape artist.

Guasparre Falgani was a pupil of Valerio Marucelli. Examples of his work are housed in various museums and galleries throughout Italy.

Article

Italian, 17th century, male.

Active in Casalec.1660.

Landscape artist.

Article

(b Paris, Feb 24, 1735; d Vernouillet, Sept 20, 1808).

French landscape designer and writer. He inherited a considerable fortune, which allowed him to develop his interests as a seigneur-philosophe. In 1754 he joined the army and, following the cessation of the Seven Years War in 1763, entered military service at Lunéville under the exiled King of Poland, Stanislav I Leszczyński. Between 1761 and 1766 Girardin also travelled in Italy, Germany and England, where he visited several English landscape gardens, including Stowe, Blenheim and the Leasowes.

In 1766, following the death of Stanislav, Girardin settled at Ermenonville, Oise, where during the next decade he laid out an influential Picturesque landscape garden. Shortly after its completion he published De la composition des paysages (1777), in which he codified his own accomplishments and presented his theory of landscape gardening. Although this treatise reveals his intimate understanding of the associationist aesthetics of contemporary French and English garden theory, as found for example in Thomas Whately’s ...

Article

Spanish, 17th century (?), male.

Active in Seville.

Painter.

Francisco Gutiérrez may be the same person as the landscape artist of this name mentioned in Madrid in the 17th century.

Article

(b Stockholm, 1700; d Stockholm, 1753).

Swedish architect. His father, Johan Hårleman (1662–1707), was a landscape gardener who collaborated with Nicodemus Tessin the younger at Steninge Manor and on the garden at Drottningholm, near Stockholm. Carl Hårleman first trained as a draughtsman and architect at the palace works in Stockholm under Tessin and G. J. Adelcrantz (1668–1739). On Tessin’s recommendation he was sent to study in Paris and Italy (1721–6); he also visited Britain. In 1727 he was recalled to Stockholm to direct work on the Royal Palace as Tessin’s successor, and in 1741 he was appointed Superintendent. He visited France in 1731–2 and 1744–5 to recruit artists and craftsmen to work on the interiors of the Royal Palace and Drottningholm in Stockholm. Such visits also enabled him to remain in touch with French stylistic developments.

There are close connections between Hårleman’s designs for town and country houses and those of such French architects as Charles-Etienne Briseux and Jean-Baptiste Bullet. Svartsjö (...

Article

Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Castle in Salzburg, Austria. To the south of Salzburg, Archbishop Marcus Sitticus von Hohenems (reg 1612–19) commissioned Santino Solari to build a small castle to be used as a summer palace. Schloss Hellbrunn (1613–19) is a most perfect realization of the Italian villa suburbana and the earliest of its kind north of the Alps. Situated at the end of a long avenue, the building is a cube of classic simplicity, with a bifurcate staircase opening on to a cour d’honneur. The most remarkable interior features are the Festsaal (banqueting hall), set asymmetrically on the west side, and its projecting octagon, with frescoes by Arsenio Mascagni (1579–1636). Hellbrunn’s main attraction, however, is its gardens. The Lustgarten or Pleasure Garden was laid out north of the castle and furnished with an unusual variety of grottoes, fountains, ponds and other features including the Roman Theatre, a miniature exedra dominated by a statue of ...

Article

Johannes Zahlten

Palace and garden on the outskirts of Hannover, Germany. After Duke Georg of Calenberg (d 1641) had elevated Hannover to the status of Residenzstadt, his summer residence was developed from an existing palace to the north-west of the town (from 1638). The modest palace, which was altered several times, was almost completely destroyed in 1943, but its Baroque gallery-building (1694–6) survives. The banqueting hall and residential wings are richly decorated: the frescoes (including an Aeneas cycle) were painted by the Venetian Tommaso Giusti (1644–1729), while the stucco decoration was executed by Dossa Grana, Pietro Rosso (fl 1695–1706) and others. To the south of the Residenz lies the park, the Grosser Garten, for which Herrenhausen is famed. The first pleasure garden, inspired by Venetian villa design, was created in 1666 by the landscape gardener Michael Grosse and developed (from 1674) by ...

Article

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Baptised 6 October 1636 in Bruges; died 2 December 1697.

Landscape artist.

In 1656, Balthasar de Hooghe entered Dunes abbey. He was the brother of Anthonie de Hooghe.

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Active in Rheimbach from 1610 to 1628.

Landscape artist.

Article

[formerly Isola di San Vittore]

Island in Lake Maggiore, northern Italy, the principal of three islands near Stresa known as the Isole Borromeo, where the 17th-century Palazzo Borromeo was built; this is a significant example of the harmonious integration of architecture, sculpture and garden design in the Baroque style. Before the 17th century the island was a barren rock with a few cottages and a church, inhabited only by poor fishermen. Count Carlo III Borromeo (1586–1652) initiated a grand project of building and landscaping in 1632 and renamed the island Isabella (later corrupted to Isola Bella) in honour of his wife Isabella d’Adda. Carlo’s scheme was finished under his sons Vitaliano Borromeo and Cardinal Giberto Borromeo (1615–72), Vitaliano taking over most of the supervision of the project. Several artists collaborated on the scheme; Angelo Crivelli (d 1630), who conceived the original plan for the gardens and palace, Francesco Maria Ricchini, ...

Article

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Active in Utrecht.

Born 1625; died 1667 or 1668, in Schiedam.

Landscape artist.

Worked in Italy.