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Cinzia Maria Sicca

English 18th-century Palladian villa c. 12 km west of central London in Chiswick, in the Greater London borough of Hounslow. The villa was built in 1725–9 for Boyle family, §2, 3rd Earl of Burlington, to his own designs, in grounds laid out from 1715; the interior decoration and furnishings were largely the work of William Kent, who also added to the gardens in the 1730s.

In 1704 Burlington inherited the Chiswick estate, consisting of a Jacobean house set in formal, walled grounds of 11 ha, but it was not until he returned from a visit to Italy in 1715 that he turned his attention to Chiswick. Initially, he refronted the existing house with a classical façade of three bays surmounted by a shallow pediment. In 1719 Burlington once more visited Italy, including the Veneto, in order to see buildings by Palladio at first hand, and in 1725 he began building a Palladian villa (...

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Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...

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Irish mansion and gardens near Enniskerry, Co. Wicklow. The house (1731–41; gutted 1962) was remodelled in the Palladian style by Richard Castle for Richard Wingfield, 1st Viscount Powerscourt (d 1751). A map (c. 1760) shows a formal garden with stepped, semicircular terraces around a circular pond; surviving plans show parterres, gateways and a circular amphitheatre. The designer may have been George Dean (fl 1746). The park was landscaped c. 1830 in the prevailing Picturesque style by Edmund Murphy. In 1841 Richard, 6th Viscount Powerscourt (1815–44), commissioned an Italianate garden from the architect Daniel Robertson (fl 1812–43). The first terrace, based on one at the Villa Butera (now Villa Trabia Campofiorito), near Palermo, was complete by 1844. Mervyn, 7th Viscount Powerscourt (1836–1904), resumed work in 1858, and designs presented by James Howe, Brodrick Thomas and Sir George Frederick Hodson (...

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Carola Stuart

English house and landscape garden at Stourton, Wilts. The house was built for Henry Hoare the elder by Colen Campbell in 1721–4; its garden was laid out by Henry Hoare the younger between 1741 and 1772, assisted by Henry Flitcroft. In 1717 Henry Hoare the elder, a London banker, purchased the Stourton estate, which included a medieval deer park. He immediately had the existing house pulled down and commissioned Campbell to replace it with a Palladian villa. This was built on a plateau of chalk downland east of a deep valley containing several pools fed by the diminutive River Stour. In 1744 Flitcroft designed the Temple of Ceres (completed 1746; later renamed the Temple of Flora), a small classical building fronted with a Tuscan Doric portico, on the east side of the valley at the head of one of the Stour’s pools. Flitcroft’s Temple of Hercules (1753–4; later renamed the Pantheon), on the west side of the valley, is a domed rotunda with a hexastyle Corinthian portico, based on the Pantheon (2nd century ...

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Margherita Azzi Visentini

Palace and estate at Stra, near Padua, overlooking the Brenta Canal, formerly owned by the noble Venetian Pisani family. Around 1718 Almorò Pisani and his brother Alvise Pisani (Doge of Venice, 1735) commissioned the Paduan Count Girolamo Frigimelica (1653–1732) to redesign their modest family residence at Stra. Work began in 1720 with modifications to the garden, which was adorned with 12 sculptural groups by Giovanni Bonazza; these represented mythological divinities and allegorical figures. The Villa is divided in two parts by the straight central axis that leads from the entrance portal through the centre of the Palazzo to the end of the garden, where it halts at the elegant stables with their projecting Ionic porch between curved outer wings. In the middle was a large lawn (here in the early 20th century a long pool was excavated). At the sides of this area were several oblique paths leading to various outbuildings designed by Frigimelica—the belvedere, the exedra that linked the long avenues of limes, and the maze with its turret at the centre. Part of this was recorded in the drawings of ...