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Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born in Paris.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, winter landscapes, seascapes, gardens, flowers. Decorative panels.

Daughter of the sculptor A. Zoegger, Marie Anne Camax-Zoegger studied under Henner, who painted a portrait of her as The Young Artist. She was a member of the Société Nationale and president of the Syndicat des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs. She painted compositions featuring children, flowers and landscapes and also produced decorative panels. ...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Born 24 March 1875, in Barcelona; died 19 March 1958, in Barcelona.

Painter, sculptor. Figure compositions, figures, portraits, interiors with figures, landscapes, gardens.

Pedro Casas Abarca was the brother of Agapito Casas Abarca. He studied law at the same time that he was an art student at the Escuela de Bellas Artes in Barcelona. He was best known for his paintings of elegant young women in interiors or in the garden. He participated in collective exhibitions, and received various distinctions. Solo exhibitions of his work have been mounted in Madrid and Barcelona. He engaged in numerous activities in the press and in the publishing of photographs and lithographs. He also had several honorary functions, and was a member of the order of Alfonso X El Sabio....

Article

Wilhelmina Halsema-Kubes

(b ?Abbeville, Somme; fl 1714–56).

French sculptor, active in the northern Netherlands. His earliest known works are two signed and very elegant Louis XIV garden vases decorated with allegories of the seasons (1714; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.); they were commissioned by David van Mollem (1670–1746), a silk merchant, who was laying out a fine garden for the country house on his estate of Zijdebalen, near Utrecht. Cressant’s name is first mentioned in Utrecht c. 1730–31 in connection with his statue of Justice for the Stadhuis; it is now in the Paleis van Justitie in Utrecht. The many commissions for garden sculpture that Cressant received from van Mollem probably account for his settling in Utrecht: other artists who made sculptures and vases for these gardens are Jan-Baptiste Xavery, Jan van der Mast (fl c. 1736) and J. Matthijsen. Cressant made for van Mollem, among other things, vases, putti and a wooden Neptune: very little of this work survives....

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...

Article

Irish, 18th century, male.

Born in Dublin; died 11 September 1796, in Maidstone.

Painter. Genre scenes.

Henry Hodgins was a pupil of Robert Carver. He was a scenery painter at Covent Garden Theatre, and may be the same person as the landscape artist of the same name....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 26 December 1793, in Rome; died after 1855.

Painter. Landscapes.

Pacetti, the son of Vincenzo Pacetti, came from a family of artists, sculptors and landscape painters from the Neapolitan school of landscape artists working right through the 19th century. He was was awarded the prize of the Accademia di San Luca in ...

Article

Jeremy Hunt and Jonathan Vickery

At the turn of the millennium, public art was an established global art genre with its own professional and critical discourse, as well as constituencies of interest and patronage independent of mainstream contemporary art. Art criticism has been prodigious regarding public art’s role in the ‘beautification’ of otherwise neglected social space or in influencing urban development. Diversity and differentiation are increasingly the hallmarks of public art worldwide, emerging from city branding strategies and destination marketing as well as from artist activism and international art events and festivals. The first decade of the 21st century demonstrated the vast opportunity for creative and critical ‘engagement’, activism, social dialogue, and cultural co-creation and collective participation. New public art forms emerged, seen in digital and internet media, pop-up shops, and temporary open-access studios, street performance, and urban activism, as well as architectural collaborations in landscape, environment or urban design.

Intellectually, the roots of contemporary public art can be found in the ludic and the architectonic: in the playful public interventions epitomized in the 1960s by the ...

Article

[Joâo Baptista]

(b Paris; d Queluz, Estremadura, Sept 30, 1782).

French landscape designer, interior designer, architect and sculptor, active in Portugal. His early career in Paris is not well documented. It is known that he lived in the Faubourg Saint-Lazare and became bankrupt on 21 November 1748. His work on the façade and the interior of St Louis-du-Louvre (1741–4; destr. c. 1810) is mentioned in Jacques-François Blondel’s L’Architecture française (1752–6). He and Jean-Baptiste Pigalle worked there under the direction of Thomas Germain, silversmith to Louis XV and a highly appreciated craftsman in Portugal. It was probably Germain who suggested that Robillon move to Portugal, and he arrived there c. 1749. Due to the levies on Brazilian gold and diamond mines, the country was going through a period of unprecedented wealth that was being spent on manufactured objects and public works, especially after the Lisbon earthquake (1755).

Robillon’s work in Portugal was linked with the royal ...

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

Spanish, 19th century, male.

Born 1852, in Barcelona; died 1909 or 1919, in Barcelona.

Painter, sculptor (?). Landscapes, seascapes.

Juan Roig y Soler studied under the landscape artist Modesto Urgell around 1872 in Paris, before continuing his studies in Rome. He lived for some time on the coasts of Andalusia and Italy. During a second period in Paris around 1877 he discovered the work of Courbet, which had a major impact on him....

Article

J. Krčálová

(b Melide, nr Lugano; d Prague, 1552).

Italian sculptor and architect, active in Bohemia. He was commissioned by Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia (Holy Roman Emperor, 1556–64), to design the Summer Palace (Belvedere) in the formal gardens of Hradčany Castle (see Prague §IV 1.) and prepared a model of it in Genoa in 1537. The Belvedere was the most important Renaissance building of its time in Central Europe: with its wide arcade at ground level, the building recalls the medieval Palazzo della Ragione in Padua (1172–1219; loggias 1306), while Sebastiano Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (1537) may have provided the pattern for the windows. The roof has a double-S profile, and the upper-floor windows alternate with niches. From May 1538 Stella led a group of Italian masons in Prague who sculpted a series of reliefs—the most extensive of their kind in Central Europe—for the Belvedere. The expressive and Mannerist traits of this building are evidence against the identification of Paolo Stella with another sculptor known as ...

Article

James Holderbaum

[Niccolò di Raffaello de’ Pericoli; il Tribolo]

(b ?Florence, 1500; d ?Florence, Sept 7, 1550).

Italian sculptor, engineer and garden designer. He was apprenticed in Florence first as a wood-carver with Giovanni d’Alesso d’Antonio and then as a sculptor with Jacopo Sansovino, whom he continued to assist well into the second decade of the 16th century. Vasari listed many works (most now untraced) from Tribolo’s youth, among which was his earliest fountain; an old terracotta copy (London, V&A) shows this unpretentious and slightly old-fashioned work to have featured two children and a spouting dolphin that foreshadow the blithe charm of his later masterpieces.

Tribolo was famously unassertive and often adapted his art to suit established or collaborative projects. His plump and lissom putto (marble, c. 1523–4) on the lower right of Baldassare Peruzzi’s tomb of Hadrian VI (Rome, S Maria dell’Anima) indicates his exposure both to antique sculpture and to contemporary Roman work, especially that of Michelangelo’s maturity. In 1525–7 he collaborated on façade sculpture for S Petronio, Bologna, where his portal relief of ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active, then naturalised in France in 1900.

Born 28 December 1865, in Lausanne; died 29 December 1925, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman, newspaper cartoonist, sculptor (including bronze), engraver (wood/etching), lithographer, illustrator. Scenes with figures, figures, nudes, portraits, interiors with figures, waterscapes, gardens, seascapes, still-lifes, flowers...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b c. 1720; d London, Dec 3, 1779).

English medallist. He may have been responsible for engraving some admission tickets for the entertainments at Vauxhall Gardens, London, in the 1730s. His first known medals, and his best, are those commemorating the Battle of Culloden of 1746. Both the official medal (gold and bronze; see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, no. 283) and the larger medal portraying William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, as Hercules (gold, silver and bronze; hfg, ii, 278) demonstrate Yeo’s mastery as an engraver, while the imaginative allegorical reverses combine effectively with decorative Rococo flourishes. In 1749 he was appointed Assistant Engraver to the Royal Mint, London, and in 1775 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engraver, a post he retained until his death. In the 1760s and 1770s he made the dies for a number of coins of George III. His relatively small number of known medals includes the exquisite Cambridge University Chancellor’s medal of ...