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Gordon Campbell

(b Tel Aviv, 1951).

Israeli designer, active in Britain. In 1981 Arad founded, with Caroline Thorman, One Off Ltd, a design studio, workshops and showroom in Covent Garden, London. In 1989, again with Caroline Thorman, he founded Ron Arad Associates, an architecture and design practice in Chalk Farm. In 1994 he established the Ron Arad Studio in Como (Italy). His most famous design is the Rover Chair, which recycled used Rover car seats. He has long had an interest in the use of steel, and the Bookwork bookshelves (...

Article

James D. Kornwolf

(b Ramsgate, Oct 23, 1865; d Brighton, Feb 10, 1945).

English architect, interior designer, garden designer and writer . He was articled to Charles Davis (1827–1902), City Architect of Bath, from 1886 until 1889 but learnt little and was largely self-taught. In 1889 he started his own practice on the Isle of Man, where he built a number of buildings, including his own Red House, Douglas (1893). He was a leading member of the second-generation Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and was among the first to build on the simpler, more abstract and stylized designs of C. F. A. Voysey, a refinement of the ideas of William Morris, Philip Webb, R. Norman Shaw and others from the period 1860–90. From about 1890 until World War I, the Arts and Crafts Movement, as represented by Baillie Scott, Voysey, C. R. Ashbee, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Parker & Unwin and others, became the most important international force in architecture, interior design, landscape and urban planning. The work of these architects influenced Adolf Loos and Josef Hoffmann in Austria, Joseph Maria Olbrich and Peter Behrens in Germany, Eliel Saarinen and others in Scandinavia, and Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill, Greene & Greene in the USA....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active in Rome and later in Venice.

Born c. 1820, in Padua.

Painter, decorative designer. Landscapes.

Bresolin studied in Florence under Marko. He worked at first as a decorative artist, later becoming a landscape artist.

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born in Paris.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, winter landscapes, seascapes, gardens, flowers. Decorative panels.

Daughter of the sculptor A. Zoegger, Marie Anne Camax-Zoegger studied under Henner, who painted a portrait of her as The Young Artist. She was a member of the Société Nationale and president of the Syndicat des Femmes Peintres et Sculpteurs. She painted compositions featuring children, flowers and landscapes and also produced decorative panels. ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1924, in Limoges.

Painter, watercolourist, decorative designer. Landscapes.

Michel Delmas studied at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Appliqués. A landscape artist, he often painted from nature and with emphasis on the sky and the light, views of the region of Sens, Brittany and Provence in oil or watercolour. He has produced a number of murals including a ceramic frieze for a secondary school in Sens....

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born after 1490, in Ferrara; died c. 1548, in Ferrara.

Painter, decorative artist, caricaturist. Religious subjects, landscapes.

Ferrara School.

Battista Dossi was a landscape artist and caricaturist. He was the pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and worked almost exclusively with his brother Giovanni, although they did not get on. Battista had a difficult temperament and was physically deformed, and only communicated with his brother in writing. According to Barruffaldi, they lived in Rome for six years, then in Venice for five years, where they painted from nature, and had the best teachers....

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

(b Bristol, May 26, 1833; d London, Oct 6, 1886).

English architect, designer and writer. He had an early interest in archaeology, which was fostered by fragments of medieval carving in his parents’ garden. From the age of 15 he began sketching buildings all over the West Country. In 1851 he contributed illustrations to The Antiquities of Bristol and Neighbourhood, by which time he was apprenticed to William Armstrong of Bristol. Armstrong, perhaps recognizing Godwin’s aptitude, entrusted him with much of his architectural work. This brought Godwin early responsibility but little formal training, a lack that he felt dogged his professional life. In 1854 he established an independent practice, and in an attempt to further his career, in 1856 he joined his brother, an engineer, in Londonderry, Ireland. During his visit he studied castles and abbeys throughout Ireland. He also designed three small Roman Catholic churches in a severe Gothic style at St Johnstown (1857–61), Newtown Cunningham (...

Article

Gérard Rousset-Charny

(b St Ouen, nr Paris, June 7, 1737; d Paris, Dec 29, 1818).

French architect and designer. He was the son of the gardener at the royal château of Choisy-le-Roi and attended Jacques-François Blondel’s school of architecture, the Ecole des Arts, winning third place in the Prix de Rome competition of 1759. He spent five years in Rome (1761–6) on a bursary granted by Louis XV, and he made friends there with Giovanni Battista Piranesi. He returned to France via Holland and England. In 1769, at the suggestion of the King’s surgeon Germain Pichault de la Martinière, he was commissioned to design the new Ecole de Chirurgie (1771–86; now the Faculté de Médecine, Paris). The layout is in the manner of an hôtel particulier, with a court surrounded by an Ionic colonnade and closed off from the present Rue de l’Ecole de Médecine by a columnar screen. It was this feature that made a great impression on Gondoin’s contemporaries, lacking as it does the usual inflections by projecting end pavilions and central ...

Article

James Yorke

[Mayhew and Ince]

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from 1752 until West’s death. As the usual age to begin an apprenticeship was 14, he was probably born towards the end of the 1730s. In 1758 Ince formed a partnership with Mayhew. They operated from Broad Street, Carnaby Market, an address formerly occupied by Charles Smith (fl 1746–59), whose premises they had purchased. In Mortimer’s Universal Director (1763) they were described as ‘cabinet-makers, carvers and upholders’, and by 1778 they were styling themselves ‘manufacturers of plate glass’ (Ince’s father and brother were glass-grinders).

In 1759 the partners began to issue in serial form The Universal System of Household Furniture...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 8 April 1880, in Anzin; died 20 September 1947, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman (charcoal), engraver, lithographer, illustrator, designer. Historical subjects, military subjects, religious subjects, sporting subjects, figures, portraits, historical portraits, scenes with figures, local scenes, genre scenes, street scenes, interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes, gardens, panoramas...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 2 November 1876, in Paris; died 31 December 1958.

Painter, designer, engraver. Genre scenes, nudes, landscapes, gardens, still-lifes. Designs (wallpapers/fabrics), designs for stained glass, theatre decoration.

Art Deco.

Francis Jourdain was the son of the writer, art critic and architect Franz Jourdain. He studied painting and colour engraving under Henri C. Guérard, and worked in the evenings at the studio of Eugène Carrière. He also studied under Albert Besnard and collaborated with him for three months on the decoration of the chapel of the Berck hospice. He took part in exhibitions of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and was made an associate member of the Society. With his father - for many years the president - he was one of the founder members of the Salon d'Automne. He collaborated on the magazine ...

Article

Eva B. Ottillinger

(fl Vienna, 1835–c. 1871).

Austrian furniture-maker. In 1835 he founded a metal-furniture factory in Vienna; its products extended from garden and park furniture to drawing-room furniture and ornamental figures in the Rococo Revival style. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Kitschelt, along with Michael Thonet and Carl Leistler, represented the Vienna furniture industry, showing seats, tables and ornamental vases with floral decoration. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris Kitschelt showed a four-poster bed and a suite designed by the architect Josef von Storck. In 1871 Kitschelt exhibited leather-upholstered seats in classical forms, designed by Rudolf Bernt (1844–1914), at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, Vienna. Thereafter Kitschelt’s successors concentrated on the production of utility furniture made of tubular steel or moulded metal, portable furniture, tubular steel beds, ladders and garden tents.

M. Zweig: Das zweite Rokoko (Vienna, 1924) E. B. Ottillinger: Das Wiener Möbel des Historismus: Formgebungstheorie und Stiltendenzen...

Article

Hungarian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 15 March 1880, in Vienna; died 1968.

Painter. Scenes with figures, interiors, landscapes, gardens. Designs for tapestries, furniture, objets d'art and fabrics.

Artur Lakotos was born Artur Schlosser, and decided to change his German name to its Hungarian equivalent when his family returned to Vienna after having lived in Budapest ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 22 January 1690, in Paris; died 14 September 1743, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman (including red chalk). Genre scenes, interiors with figures, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures, gardens, animals, birds. Decorative schemes, decorative designs, murals...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 November 1906, in Ercheu.

Painter, decorative artist. Landscapes.

Gérard Langlet taught drawing. Primarily a landscape artist, he also produced lithographs and some decorative work, particularly for the teacher training college in Châlons-sur-Marne, for the dining hall of the secondary school in Rheims and for the Le Mabillon university refectory in Paris. He took part in several annual salons including: Salon des Artistes Français, Salon des Indépendants and Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and in ...

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term applied to a style of architecture, interior décor and garden layout associated with the reign of Louis XIV of France (reg 1643–1715; see Bourbon, House of family, §I, (8)). Once he began his personal rule in 1661, the King took a passionate interest in the building and furnishing of the royal residences, notably Versailles, bringing together the most talented artists of the day to promote the power and magnificence of the monarchy. The style had its origins at Vaux-le-Vicomte, château of, the opulent late Baroque château created in the 1650s for Nicolas Fouquet, Surintendant des Finances, and the collaborative effort of the architect Louis Le Vau (see Le Vau family, §1), the garden designer Le Nôtre [Le Nostre], André and Le Brun, Charles, painter and designer. After Fouquet’s disgrace and imprisonment in 1661, the three worked together to transform the King’s hunting-lodge at Versailles into a statement of political absolutism....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 26 September 1916, in Amiens; died 23 December 1992, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache/wash), designer. Portraits, landscapes, gardens, bestiaries. Wall decorations, stage costumes and sets, designs for tapestries.

Dominick Marty was born into a family of artists. His father was the illustrator André-Édouard Marty; his mother the violinist Madeleine Marty-Zipelius. In his formative years, he was involved in the creation of stage scenery and costumes. He worked for the ...

Article

[Joâo Baptista]

(b Paris; d Queluz, Estremadura, Sept 30, 1782).

French landscape designer, interior designer, architect and sculptor, active in Portugal. His early career in Paris is not well documented. It is known that he lived in the Faubourg Saint-Lazare and became bankrupt on 21 November 1748. His work on the façade and the interior of St Louis-du-Louvre (1741–4; destr. c. 1810) is mentioned in Jacques-François Blondel’s L’Architecture française (1752–6). He and Jean-Baptiste Pigalle worked there under the direction of Thomas Germain, silversmith to Louis XV and a highly appreciated craftsman in Portugal. It was probably Germain who suggested that Robillon move to Portugal, and he arrived there c. 1749. Due to the levies on Brazilian gold and diamond mines, the country was going through a period of unprecedented wealth that was being spent on manufactured objects and public works, especially after the Lisbon earthquake (1755).

Robillon’s work in Portugal was linked with the royal ...

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...