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Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Active also active in Italy.

Born 8 June 1830, in Montevideo; died 15 April 1901, in Pisa, Italy.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist. Religious subjects, military subjects, historical subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, local figures, portraits, landscapes, local scenes, animals. Murals.

Juán Manuel Blanes' father was Andalusian and his mother was Argentinian. He was from a humble background and he seems to have learnt to draw and paint by himself. He worked on the newspaper ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Active in France and took French nationality.

Born 14 July 1865, in Montevideo (Uruguay).

Watercolourist, engraver (burin/etching).

He trained under G. Buland and Celez, having practiced original engraving. He was a member of the Salon des Artistes Français.

Article

Uruguayan, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 29 June 1861, in Montevideo, to Italian parents; died 24 July 1938, in Montevideo.

Painter. Genre scenes, local scenes.

A brilliant lawyer, man of public affairs, well-known politician, writer, philosopher, aesthetician and portrayer of the Uruguayan identity through his many activities and through his painting, Pedro Figari played a role of paramount importance in his country's development in the early part of the 20th century and particularly in the 'nativist' movement which stood for maintaining the racial and cultural diversity that created the country of Uruguay....

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Active in Genoa.

Painter. Portraits.

Gaetano Gallino was a pupil of Tagliafichi, and for many years lived in Montevideo, Uruguay.

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 25 September 1864, in Montevideo (Uruguay); died 1913.

Painter. Genre scenes, harbour scenes.

Grethe, a pupil of Bouguereau and of Robert-Fleury in Paris, also studied at the academy of fine art in Karlsruhe before going on to lecture at the academy of fine art in Stuttgart. He was awarded a bronze medal in ...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Born 26 September 1866, in Montevideo; died 26 August 1902, in Montevideo.

Painter, engraver. Military subjects.

Diogenes Hequet studied in Paris under the painter Truphème and the engraver Tauzin. He became famous in Uruguay for his National Events in which he retraces South America's major historical events....

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Born 19 October 1855, in Montevideo.

Painter.

Domingo Laporte studied under Giovanni Fattori in Florence. He received a commendation in 1889 at the Exposition Universelle in Paris for his Grand Canal, Venice. In 1928 he became the director of the newly-founded Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes in Montevideo....

Article

Uruguayan, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1871, in Montevideo; died 22 May 1910, in Montevideo.

Painter. Seascapes.

Manuel Larravide was self-taught. In his youth he was strongly influenced by the works of Edouard de Martino, a naval painter to the English court who lived for a time in Rio de la Plata. Larravide is closely associated with the early development of art in Uruguay and Argentina. His seascapes were highly successful and can be seen in the museums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo....

Article

Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Uruguay.

Died 1921, in Montevideo.

Painter, draughtsman, pastellist. Figures, portraits.

Emilio Mas went into exile in Latin America. He was confined to a psychiatric hospital where he executed a series of paintings of mentally ill people. He worked on these each day, ceaselessly modifying the expressions depicted on their faces....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 December 1861; died 1938, in Orly.

Film maker, draughtsman.

Méliès made more than 4,000 films. As a draughtsman, his unusual drawings in a pre-Surrealist spirit were a precursor of animated cartoons.

Lefebvre, Thierry: ‘Méliès la tempête optique’ in ...

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 1833, in Lugano (Ticino); died 1861, in Montevideo (Uruguay).

Painter, decorative designer. Stage sets.

Domenico Monteverde was the brother of Luigi Monteverde.

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in Uruguay.

Born 1869; died October 1924, in Montevideo.

Painter, decorative artist. Portraits.

Parpagnoli emigrated to South America and settled initially in Buenos Aires, before moving to Montevideo. He worked on the decoration of the Collegio San Michele, part of the Confederazione dell'Oratorio San Filippo Neri in Rome, and painted the portraits of Pope Leo XIII and Queen Elena....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Montevideo (Uruguay), to French parents.

Painter. Figures, genre scenes, interiors.

U. M. Samaran was probably a pupil of Nicolas Gysis at the school of fine arts, Athens, and of Franz von Lenbach in Munich; certainly of Raphaël Collin in Paris. He settled in Paris and exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, of which he was a member from ...

Article

Janet Marstine

(b Woodstown, NJ, Nov 6, 1876; d New York, May 1, 1953).

American painter, illustrator, designer, playwright, and film director. He studied industrial design at the Spring Garden School in Philadelphia from 1888 to 1890. In 1893 he became an illustrator at the Philadelphia Press. Simultaneously he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he met Robert Henri, John Sloan, William J. Glackens, and George Luks. Their style of urban realism prompted him to depict the bleak aspects of city life. In 1897 Shinn moved to New York and produced illustrations for several newspapers and magazines, for example Mark Twain (March 1900; see Perlman, p. 80), a frontispiece for The Critic. He also drew sketches for a novel by William Dean Howells on New York; although the novel was not published, Shinn’s drawings brought him national recognition.

Shinn’s work changed radically when, on a trip to Paris in 1901, he was inspired by the theatre scenes of Manet, Degas, and Jean-Louis Forain. He began to paint performers in action, from unusual vantage points, as in ...

Article

Belgian, 19th century, male.

Born 27 August 1819, in Courtrai; died 18 July 1862, in Montevideo.

Painter. Landscapes, architectural views.

Adolphe Soete was a pupil of J.-B. Daveloose. The museum at Courtrai has his View of the Area around Tournai.

Article

Uruguayan, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active between 1924 and 1932 in France.

Born 25 July 1874, in Montevideo; died 8 August 1949, in Montevideo.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist. Toys.

Constructivism.

Groups: Cercle et Carré, Atelier Torres García.

Torres García's father was Catalan and his mother Uruguayan. They moved to Barcelona when he was seven. He studied at the Escuela Oficial de Bellas Artes in Barcelona ('La Llotja') and at the Academia Baixas. He copied works by Degas and Steinlen. At the same time he decorated the rooms of the Diputación and the library of the city hall, and executed commissions in different churches. He executed these works in a style of Puvis de Chavannes. Little remains today of these paintings, except those of the central library of the Diputación in Madrid. In 1903, Torres García assisted Antoni Gaudi with the execution of stained glass windows for the cathedral of Palma, Majorca and later with the windows for the Sagrada Familia in Barcelona. After a difficult period Torres García went to Paris, hoping to come into as close contact as possible with contemporary art movements. He also spent time in Brussels, Florence and Rome. After his arrival in 1910, he was first influenced by the Futurists. His works most clearly in this style are dated 1917-1918, and are devoted to themes mixed together on the canvas: ...

Article

Uruguayan, 19th century, male.

Active in Great Britain.

Died 1880, in Montevideo.

Painter. History painting, portraits, genre scenes.

Tuson worked in London and exhibited religious subjects from 1853 to 1865 at The Royal Academy, the British Institution and at Suffolk Street. He painted The Reception of a Delegation of the Corporation of Manchester by the Sultan in Buckingham Palace...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....