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Fu Hao  

Anthony Barbieri-Low

Chinese consort to Wu Ding, the fourth Shang king to rule from the last capital of the dynasty, at a site near modern Anyang in Henan Province. The oracle bone inscriptions found at Anyang reveal a glimpse of Fu Hao’s life and career, but her tomb, discovered in ...

Article

Carol Michaelson

The first Chinese dynasty for which there is both archaeological and historical evidence, dating from c. 1600 bc to c. 1050 bc. Established by a tribal chieftain, Shang culture was centred on the Yellow River plain and at times controlled modern northern Henan Province and parts of modern Shandong, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces. Twentieth-century archaeology has provided much detail about the dynasty, retrieving it from the legendary period. Great advances in bronzeworking and other technologies were made in the Shang, leading to a high level of civilization. Remains of sacrifices and fighting accoutrements are particularly pertinent to the aristocratic class; inevitably, much less is known about the lower classes....

Article

Carol Michaelson

Traditional but unverified first Chinese dynasty, supposed to date from the early 2nd millennium bc and to precede the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1050 bc). The Xia dynasty is said to have lasted about 439 years, beginning with the ruler Yu and ending with the degenerate Jie. Arguments about Xia culture generally stem from Zhou period (...