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S. J. Vernoit

Swedish collector and art historian. After graduating as a civil engineer in 1904 from the Royal College of Engineering in Stockholm, he travelled to China in 1906, where he worked first as a superintendent of reinforced concrete construction and then, from 1908, as a section engineer for the Tientsin–Pukow (Tianjin–Pukou) Railway Company. As objects of art were frequently discovered during the construction of railways, Karlbeck soon became interested in Chinese archaeology and art and formed an important collection of early Chinese bronzes. When the Swedish Crown Prince, later King ...


Robert W. Kramer

Alcove for seating or decorative display in a traditional Japanese room. In the Kamakura period (1185–1333) this space was set aside for the display of devotional objects in a Buddhist monastic setting; typically a hanging scroll or scrolls were placed on the rear wall of the space and a candle, flowerpot and incense burner in front. Monks would recite ...