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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Marianne Barrucand

[‛Alawī; Filālī]

Islamic dynasty and rulers of Morocco since 1631. Like their predecessors the Sa‛dis, the ‛Alawis are sharīfs (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad), and both dynasties are sometimes classed together as the ‘Sharifs of Morocco’. From a base in the Tafilalt region of south-east Morocco, the ‛Alawi family was able to overcome the centrifugal forces exerted by the Berber tribes who had destroyed the Sa‛di state in the first half of the 17th century. To restore political authority and territorial integrity, Mawlay Isma‛il (reg 1672–1727) added a new black slave corps to the traditional tribal army. Although royal power was weak during the 19th century and the early 20th, when the French and Spanish established protectorates, the ‛Alawis’ power was fully restored after independence from the French in 1956.

‛Alawi building activities (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)) were concentrated in the four cities that have served as their capitals: Fez and Marrakesh at various times from ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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S. J. Vernoit

(b 1753; d Brighton, Aug 19, 1807).

English collector. He went to India in 1770 as a writer in the Bengal Civil Service and spent ten years in Calcutta, occupying various posts including assistant to the Governor-General Warren Hastings (1732–1818). Johnson became very rich, augmenting his salary with private trade, and he also took part in the intellectual life surrounding Hastings, studying oriental languages, commissioning copies of manuscripts for his own use and purchasing paintings. He was in Lucknow as Head Assistant to the Resident (1780–82), where he increased his collection. On returning to Calcutta, he became friends with the Orientalist scholar William Jones (1746–94). Johnson was Resident at Hyderabad (1784–5), where he again extended his collection, especially with Deccani paintings. Recalled to Calcutta, he became involved with the Asiatic Society of Bengal, founded by Jones. In 1786 Johnson joined the Board of Revenue and became Chairman of the General Bank of India, a post he held until his departure from India in ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Jonathan M. Bloom and R. Nath

revised by Sheila S. Blair

[Moghul; Mogul]

Dynasty of Central Asian origin that ruled portions of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1857.

R. Nath and Jonathan M. Bloom, revised by Sheila S. Blair

The dynasty’s name Mughal derives from the word Mongol, as the founder (1) Babur (‘tiger’) was a Chaghatay prince in Central Asia who was descended on his father’s side from the Mongol warlord Timur (see Timurid family, §II, (1)) and on his mother’s from Genghis Khan. After losing his Central Asian kingdom of Ferghana, Babur conquered Kabul in 1504 and then defeated the Lodi sultan at Panipat in 1526 and the Rajput cliefs at Kanwa near Agra the following year. With these victories he gained a foothold in northern India and established a capital at Delhi (see Delhi, §I, 6; see fig.). Babur was succeeded by his son (2) Humayun (‘auspicious’), who was dislodged within a decade by nobles of the old Lodi regime, particularly Farid Khan Sur (...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

[Osmanlı]

Islamic dynasty that began to rule in Anatolia in 1281; at its greatest extent in the 16th century the Ottoman empire also included the Balkans, the Crimea, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz, Egypt and North Africa. It lasted until the promulgation of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic in 1924.

Çigdem Kafesçioglu

The Ottomans claimed descent from the eponymous Osman (‛Uthman), a Turkish ruler active in north-west Anatolia at the end of the 13th century and beginning of the 14th. His small emirate grew at the expense of the declining state of the Saljuqs of Anatolia ( see Saljuq family, §2 ). Ideologically based on the concept of religious warfare (Turk. gaza, from Arab. ghazw), the state expanded rapidly to the west over Byzantine territory in Thrace and the Balkans, and to the east over the Turkish principalities of Anatolia ( see Beylik ). The first major expansion took place under Osman’s son Orhan (...

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Walter B. Denny

[Nevşehirli Ibrahim Pasha]

(b Nevşehir, ?1662; d Istanbul, Sept 30, 1730).

Ottoman patron. He was Grand Vizier to the Ottoman sultan Ahmed III (see Ottoman family, §II, (5)) from 1718 to his execution. The son of one Ali Agha, Ibrahim came to Istanbul and rose in the palace service. Under the influence of the Ottoman historian Naima (1655–1716), the ruling élite of the Ottoman empire regarded the glorious apogee of Ottoman power in the 16th century as a model for cultural and political life. Ibrahim was a major contemporary artistic patron, and his active interest in promoting a revival of 16th-century Ottoman culture was in large part responsible for the serious classical revival aspect of the Tulip Period (Lâle Devri), the other being a light and playful style best typified by the painting of the court artist Levni. Along with the Sultan and Mehmed Yirmisikiz Çelebi, ambassador to France, Ibrahim Pasha also encouraged Ibrahim Müteferrika (...

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[Qājār; Kadjar]

Turkoman dynasty of rulers and patrons. They reigned in Iran from 1779 to 1924. After the fall of the Safavid family dynasty and the campaigns of Nadir Shah (d 1747), the Qajar tribe of Turkoman competed against the Zand dynasty for power in Iran. Under Agha Muhammad Khan (d 1797) the various branches of the Qajar tribe were united, and their authority expanded over the country. In 1785 Agha Muhammad took Tehran and adopted it as capital. In 1794 he captured the last Zand ruler Lutf ‛Ali (reg 1789–94) at Kirman, and the following year he was formally crowned in Tehran. With the country pacified, subsequent Qajar rulers in the 19th century, particularly Agha Muhammad’s nephew (1) Fath ‛Ali Shah and the latter’s great-grandson (2) Nasir al-Din, became important patrons of art and architecture at a time when Iran was increasingly exposed to European ideas. By the end of the 19th century, however, the country was deeply in foreign debt due to incessant warfare and royal extravagance. A demand for political liberalism arose, and in ...

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Saudi  

[Āl Sa‛ūd]

Dynasty that has ruled most of the Arabian peninsula since 1746. The foundations of Saudi rule were laid when Muhammad ibn Sa‛ud (reg 1746–65) formed an alliance with the theologian Muhammad ibn ‛Abd al-Wahhab (d 1791), who wanted to purify Islam in Arabia. Under ‛Abd al-‛Aziz I (reg 1765–1803) Riyadh and most of the Najd region came under Saudi rule, and the Hijaz region, including Mecca and Medina, soon followed. Saudi expansion was countered when the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II (reg 1808–39) commissioned his viceroy in Egypt, Muhammad ‛Ali (reg 1805–48), to reconquer the Hijaz and Najd. After the withdrawal of Turco-Egyptian forces, Riyadh was recaptured by Turki (reg 1823–34) and became the new capital of a reduced ‘second’ Saudi state. After the death of Faysal I (reg 1834–65 with interruption), Saudi fortunes began to wane, and by 1891 the ‘second’ Saudi state had come to an end. ‛Abd al-‛Aziz II (...

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Zand  

S. J. Vernoit

Dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1750 to 1794. The Zand tribe, a pastoral people from the Zagros foothills, became the dominant power in Iran after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747. Under Muhammad Karim Khan (reg 1750–79), who proclaimed himself regent (Pers. vakīl) for the Safavid puppet king Isma‛il III, the Zands brought stability to southern Iran, and from 1765 Karim Khan encouraged art and architecture ( see Islamic art, §II, 7(ii)(b) ) to flourish at Shiraz , his adopted capital. His first consideration was defence, and he rebuilt the city walls in 1767. Many of his other buildings, such as the citadel, palace and mosque with adjacent bath and bazaar, were grouped around a maidan to the north of the old city. Zand architecture is notable for its revetments in carved marble and overglaze-painted tiles with flowers, animals and people. Some themes were consciously revived from nearby Achaemenid and Sasanian sites such as Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Painting also flourished under Karim Khan (...

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Zaydi  

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...