1-20 of 68 results  for:

  • Collecting, Patronage, and Display of Art x
  • Nineteenth-Century Art x
  • Art History and Theory x
Clear all

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Oakland, CA, 1893; d. Shiraz, Iran, 25 Jan. 1977).

American historian of Iranian art. While studying mathematics at the University of California, Berkeley, Ackerman met and eventually married Arthur Upham Pope, with whom she had taken courses in philosophy and aesthetics. In 1926 she and Pope organized the first ever exhibition of Persian art at the Pennsylvania Museum and helped create the First International Congress of Oriental Art. In 1930 Ackerman was stricken with polio but taught herself to walk again. They were instrumental in preparing the 1931 Persian Art Exhibition at Burlington House, London, and the Second International Congress of Iranian Art and Archaeology, as well as the Third Congress in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) in 1935 and the exhibition of Iranian art at the Iranian Institute in New York in 1940. She visited Iran for the first time in 1964, when the shah of Iran invited Pope to revive the Asia Institute; it was associated with Pahlavi University in Shiraz until ...

Article

(b Amsterdam, Aug 13, 1820; d Amsterdam, March 17, 1889).

Dutch writer, critic and collector. He was raised in a cultivated and artistic merchant family but preferred writing to commerce. In addition to serving as an editor of the Volksalmanak voor Nederlandsche Katholieken, he published the Dietsche Warande. His lifelong advocacy of Roman Catholic emancipation is reflected in many of his short stories (written under the pseudonym Pauwels Foreestier) concerning Catholic life in 17th-century Holland. In 1876 he was appointed professor of aesthetics and the history of art at the Rijksacademie voor Beeldenden Kunsten, Amsterdam. An architectural preservationist and an important critic of the art and architecture of his time, he asserted that art should serve a religious function, as it had during the Middle Ages. It should be social, idealistic and transcendental. In his ideal society the arts would form a harmonious unit under the heading of architecture. His brother-in-law P. J. H. Cuypers was the leading Dutch architect of the day, whose career was assisted by Alberdingk Thijm’s advocacy of Gothic Revivalism in architecture. Alberdingk Thijm was particularly opposed to the painters of the Barbizon and Hague schools, whose work he considered to have no underlying purpose. Rather, he preferred the Düsseldorf school, which displayed a knowledge of history and literature. His large collections reflected his philosophical orientation. His numerous 17th and 18th-century Dutch paintings, mostly by minor masters, represented all the genres. He also owned a large collection of drawings and prints, as well as books, manuscripts and religious art from the Middle Ages and Renaissance, which included a Gothic ciborium, a Byzantine crucifix and embroideries on silk, which were dispersed at auction after his death (Amsterdam, Muller, ...

Article

[Pierre Urbain]

(b Paris, 1859; d Paris, 1937).

French writer and collector. He wrote for a number of journals including Le Figaro, Le Voltaire and L’Evénement. He was the first to use the term Neo-Impressionism in a French publication (L’Evénement, 10 Dec 1886) after its use by Félix Féneon in September in Art moderne in Brussels. His attitude to the emerging Neo-Impressionist movement was somewhat equivocal. In Paris (13 Aug 1888) he wrote of Seurat as ‘the man of great achievements who is in some danger of having the paternity of his own theory wrested from him by ill-informed critics or unscrupulous colleagues’. Although he admired Seurat, he had grave doubts about the effect of his theories on other artists, claiming (in the same article) that they had ‘spoilt some great talents, painters like Angrand and Signac’. His comments particularly infuriated Paul Signac and caused tension within the group. He also wrote on the work of the ...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

[art consultant]

Paid adviser employed by collectors to recommend and facilitate the purchase of works of art. There is a long history of recruitment of art experts by wealthy patrons for advisery purposes. In the 18th century art historians such as Johann Joachim Winckelmann were actively advising leading collectors like Albani family §(2). In the early 20th century the English dealer Joseph Duveen earned a knighthood for his philanthropic efforts on behalf of British galleries. Enlisted by the so-called American Robber Barons for advice in forming collections, Duveen brokered the sale of many notable Old Masters from English aristocrats to American millionaires, including Henry Clay Frick, J. P. Morgan, Henry E. Huntington, and Andrew Mellon. Their collections ultimately formed the nuclei of many great American museums. Duveen’s contemporary Bernard Berenson was an American scholar and expert on Renaissance painting who turned his hand to art advising. Berenson assisted Isabella Stewart Gardner in forming her renowned collection of Renaissance art. His legacy as an academic is controversial thanks to his habit of accepting payment in exchange for favourable ...

Article

Molly K. Dorkin

Prior to the 20th century, the attribution of works of art was not governed by rigid regulations, and art dealers and auctioneers assigned attributions based purely on aesthetic grounds. Works were attributed to the artist whose manner they most closely resembled, but they were not further distinguished on the basis of quality; as a result, many paintings purchased as Renaissance masterpieces in the 18th or 19th century have since been downgraded to studio works or even much later pastiches.

Historically, the patrons who commissioned Old Masters placed a premium on subject-matter rather than originality, and popular narratives were requested by multiple patrons, creating conditions in which the demand for copies could flourish (see Copy). Popular compositions were often reproduced many times: by the master himself, an apprentice in his workshop, or even a later follower or imitator. A master trained his apprentices to approximate his manner as closely as possible, and sold the finished work under his own name. In some cases a master would paint the most important part of a work (such as the faces of the central figures) before delegating the rest to apprentices. Through the 19th century, pupils at prestigious institutions were taught by making copies of works by acknowledged masters. Many pieces, particularly drawings (which for much of their history were working tools, rather than art objects), were unsigned. Damaged or incomplete works of art were subjected to extensive restoration or reworking by later artists, a process that can cloud the question of attribution....

Article

Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...

Article

(b Cleve, Dec 28, 1781; d Berlin, 1853).

Prussian civil servant and collector. He served in Bayreuth and Potsdam and in 1810 joined the office of State Chancellor August von Hardenberg in Berlin, where as chairman of the Committee for the Reform of Taxation and Trade, he was influenced by English economic liberalism. He became director of the Technische Deputation für Gewerbe in 1819, and in 1821 he founded the Gewerbeverein and the Gewerbeinstitut for the advanced training of craftsmen, where he could apply his commitment to improving quality and design in the applied and industrial arts. In 1831 he took charge of the Allgemeine Bauschule. In response to the aesthetic shortcomings of mass-produced goods, Beuth and his friend Karl Friedrich Schinkel directed the publication of the Vorbilder für Fabrikanten und Handwerker (1821–37), first issued as single lithographs before being collected into two volumes with a commentary (1830–37). Schinkel provided about 40 original designs, while the remainder derived mostly from antiquity, the Renaissance and the Islamic world. The interest in historic prototypes led to the revival or adaptation of old techniques of metalworking, glassmaking and ceramic production, as well as to the investigation of the degree to which new technology could make well-designed objects more widely available. During a period of rapid industrialization and the expansion of trade, Beuth was instrumental in reorientating the manufacture of the applied arts from traditional craft methods to industrial technology. His important collection of contemporary craft objects later passed to the ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

(b Hamburg, Feb 26, 1838; d Vaucresson, nr Paris, Sept 6, 1905).

French art dealer, critic and patron, of German birth. Often misnamed Samuel, he was a major promoter of Japanese art and Art Nouveau. From a wealthy, entrepreneurial Hamburg family, he trained as an industrial decorator for ceramics under the guidance of his father and independently in Paris during the Second Empire (1852–70). After the Franco-Prussian War (which he spent in Belgium) Bing established a thriving Oriental trading business, primarily of Japanese arts, the success of which permitted the opening of his Oriental crafts shop in Paris in the late 1870s. Following a trip to Japan, he expanded the business in the 1880s, selling both contemporary and ancient Japanese objects, to meet the demand for Oriental merchandise. At the end of the 1880s, as Japonisme developed, Bing founded a monthly periodical, Le Japon artistique (pubd simultaneously in Eng., Fr. and Ger., 1888–91), and organized a series of exhibitions of rare Japanese art, featuring ceramics and ...

Article

(b Leiden, May 17, 1871; d The Hague, Jan 16, 1956).

Dutch collector and critic. He began his career as an artist, painting pointillist works such as Landscape with a Windmill (1894; Leiden, Stedel. Mus. Lakenhal), but soon turned to theory rather than practice. From 1895 he was an ardent defender of the anti-naturalist view, considering the role of art to be the representation of the inner life of the artist rather than the imitation of the visible world. He wrote widely on this and related topics in the periodicals Modern Kunstwerke (1903–10) and Beeldende Kunst (1913–38), which he edited: he also lectured extensively, and encouraged and supported young artists. Bremmer was extremely influential in the collecting of art in the Netherlands in the first years of this century, most spectacularly in the building up of the Kröller-Muller museum at Otterlo. He met Helene Kröller-Muller in 1906 and inspired her to transfer her allegiance from Delft china to modern art: over the 30 years during which he guided her buying she acquired notable groups of works by ...

Article

Gabriel P. Weisberg

(b Paris, Feb 11, 1830; d Parays, Tarn-et-Garonne, June 3, 1890).

French critic, collector and etcher. He studied drawing and painting before becoming art critic of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 1859. His extensive articles examined such issues as the etching revival (see Etching, §II, 4), modernization of the industrial arts, the cult of Japonisme and Impressionism. With his notices in the newspaper Le Rappel (1869–71) and the avant-garde journal La Renaissance littéraire et artistique (1871–2), the periodical of the emerging Symbolist poets, Burty passionately espoused the taste for Japanese art and culture and coined the term Japonisme in 1872. His apartment, which contained a vast collection of Japanese works of art, attracted many collectors also fascinated by Japan, including Edmond de Goncourt, Félix Bracquemond and Edgar Degas. Burty’s meetings and his collection and staunch advocacy of Japonisme influenced many, including his Impressionist friends, in whose compositions the subtle assimilation of Japanese print design is evident. The marriage of Burty’s daughter Madeleine to the entrepreneur ...

Article

Nigel Glendinning

(b Gijón, Asturias, 1749; d Madrid, Dec 3, 1829).

Spanish writer and collector. His early association with Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was clearly of mutual benefit: Jovellanos learnt a great deal about art and collecting from Ceán, who was helped in his career as a minor civil servant by Jovellanos. As an amateur painter, Ceán acquired basic skills from Juan de Espinal (d 1783), director of an art school established in Seville by Ceán and his circle in 1770; he also had some guidance from Anton Raphael Mengs in Madrid, where he settled in 1778 and, presumably through Jovellanos, met Francisco de Goya c. 1778–80. At this time Goya was making his series of etchings after Diego Velázquez, and Ceán later owned most of Goya’s preliminary drawings for these. Goya painted and drew him several times (e.g. c. 1785; Madrid, Conde de Cienfuegos priv. col., see Gassier and Wilson, no. 222) and also painted a portrait of Ceán’s wife, Manuela Camas y Las Heras, normally identified with the ...

Article

[pseud. Falaise, Jean de]

(b Falaise, Calvados, July 23, 1820; d Bellême, Orne, April 1, 1899).

French art administrator, collector and writer. He enrolled at the law faculty at Aix-en-Provence in 1842 and qualified as a lawyer. He travelled to Italy and to Flanders, and showed a lively interest in the many privately owned art collections in Aix at that time: his Recherches sur la vie et les ouvrages de quelques peintres provinciaux de l’ancienne France reflects his keen interest in art. In 1846 he started to work for the royal museums and in 1852, under the patronage of the Comte de Nieuwerkerke, Surintendant des Beaux-Arts, he was appointed inspector of the provincial museums. He was mainly responsible for organizing the annual Salon exhibitions in Paris. He held this position, which brought him into contact with all the artists of his age, until 1869. During this period he was appointed Assistant Curator at the Louvre (1857), and Assistant Curator (1863) and Curator (...

Article

Douglas Lewis

(b Venice, Jan 17, 1789; d Venice, Feb 22, 1868).

Italian bureaucrat, art historian and collector. He was educated in Venetian church schools until the age of 18 and spent one year at the Barnabite College in Udine (1807–8), where he specialized in Boccaccio. His career as a mid-level functionary in the Venetian courts was restricted in scope through his lack of a law degree, although his respective posts as clerk, secretary and commissioner in the appellate system brought him a respectable income. Almost entirely as a result of his force of character as the most passionate Venetian antiquary and bibliophile of his period, by the time of his death Cicogna had acquired an altogether extraordinary library of some 5000 manuscripts and more than 40,000 printed books, all of which he ceded to the city of Venice in exchange for an annuity to support his sisters. This exceptionally valuable collection remains intact in the library of the Museo Correr, together with Cicogna’s own unpublished materials, including manuscript notes on an immense range of subjects from local history, art, literature, epigraphy, economics, law, genealogy, government, topography, costume, hagiography, festivals and his private life. Within the wide range of his published writings two fundamental works stand out, both indispensable to any study of ...

Article

(b Puits, Côte d’Or, 1865; d Paris, June 6, 1926).

French critic and collector. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris but soon devoted himself to literary and artistic criticism, producing a series of monographs on writers and artists. One of his more important books is Cubistes, Futuristes, Passéistes (1914), in which he briefly surveyed the work of a number of young artists. He praised Picasso’s virtuosity and adaptability and, whilst calling him the foremost Cubist, claimed Braque’s version of Cubism to be more accessible and decorative. The Futurists, with the exception of Umberto Boccioni’s sculpture, are all grouped together with a reprint of two of their artistic manifestos.

In 1924 Coquiot published two complementary books, Des Gloires déboulonnées and Des Peintres maudits. The first of these deals with ten artists, including Degas, Gustave Moreau and Félicien Rops, who he claimed had been falsely idolized by critics and dealers. These were contrasted with the ten artists of the second book, such as van Gogh, Cézanne and Gauguin, whom he regarded as largely ignored despite what he saw as their greater ability. In the latter book he included Rouault, whom he was one of the first to support as a critic and collector. He emphasized the ferocity of Rouault’s work, writing: ‘…he tracks the Woman, the Woman of all ages … As soon as Rouault seizes a woman, he pickles her in vinegar, in acids’ (p. 119). In addition to works by ...

Article

E. A. Christensen

(b Laxfield, Suffolk, Oct 24, 1787; d London, Oct 13, 1847).

British architect, designer, writer and collector. He trained as a builder and from 1814 worked independently as an architect in London, his practice consisting mainly of church restorations. He published many books on design and architecture: his designs for ornamental metalwork appeared as Ornamental Metal Worker’s Director (1823), and his lithographs of Gothic mouldings, finials and other details, published as Working Drawings of Gothic Ornaments ([1824]), provided architects with models for Gothic capitals and carvings; his publications on architecture include Westminster Hall (1822) and Plans…of the Chapel of King Henry the Seventh (1822–9).

During the 1840s Cottingham designed a variety of pieces of Gothic furniture for his friend, John Harrison of Snelston Hall, Derbys, some of which incorporated fragments of authentic Gothic carving. His design (London, V&A) for a drawing-room cabinet for Snelston Hall, although not strictly archaeological, was based on existing examples of Gothic detailing. Cottingham’s discovery of a series of medieval tiles in the Chapter House at Westminster Abbey stimulated a revival of encaustic tiles, subsequently produced by such firms as Minton; he designed such tiles for ...

Article

Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b Paris, Feb 22, 1841; d Paris, June 26, 1896).

French art historian and collector. After studying at the Ecole des Chartes in Paris (1864–7), he worked at the Cabinet des Estampes of the Bibliothèque Nationale and then at the Louvre (1874), becoming curator of the newly formed department of medieval and modern sculpture in 1893. Courajod’s initial interests were in local history, but his work at the Bibliothèque Nationale kindled an enthusiasm for art history, and he became noted for his study of documents and precocious attention to the social context of art. Sculpture was his particular interest. He collected Italian plaquettes, and, as curator at the Louvre, he secured the acquisition of such prestigious Italian works as the Virgin and Child by Jacopo della Quercia. He bequeathed to the museum the Courajod Christ, one of the finest examples of Burgundian Romanesque wood sculpture, which the Louvre committee had refused to acquire.

Courajod was professor of the history of sculpture at the Ecole du Louvre (...

Article

Joseph R. Givens

The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002) developed cultural capital theory as way to examine the influence of intangible resources on the phenomena of social reproduction and social mobility. He described a society of competing classes, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige. The classes are composed of individual agents who attempt to climb the socio-economic ladder by maximizing the use of capital resources, which include both material objects of symbolic value and intangible attributes that imply prestige and power. Bourdieu identified four types of capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural. Economic capital represents one’s financial resources, social capital consists of one’s social support system, symbolic capital describes one’s prestige, and cultural capital includes the knowledge, values, and skills that support an understanding of cultural relations and cultural artefacts. The forms of capital are inequitably distributed among classes, and one form of capital can be converted to another. Since the value of capital is defined by social relations within a specific field, agents strategize the best way to leverage their capital for maximum gain of the valued capital within that field....

Article

Franco Bernabei

(b Pescara, March 12, 1863; d Gardone Riviera, nr Brescia, March 1, 1938).

Italian writer and collector. In his youth he was a militant critic of figurative art, especially in newspaper articles: his interest was limited to contemporary painting. All his life he was a collector of art objects, although not always of refined taste. In the early 1880s he went to Rome, where he frequented fashionable literary and journalistic circles and wrote news articles on art for periodicals such as La tribuna, Il fanfulla and the Cronaca bizantina, of which he was editor for a few months in 1885. His preferences as an art critic were for naturalistic painting, such as that of his great friend Francesco Paolo Michetti. He commented on Michetti’s painting The Vow (in Il fanfulla, 14 January 1883), giving a symbolic interpretation of its descriptive and narrative qualities, an approach that was to pervade Italian culture a few years later.

The new aestheticism appears most prominently in the novel ...

Article

Rodolfo Signorini

(b Milan, Sept 8, 1799; d Mantua, Jan 26, 1872).

Italian critic, historian and draughtsman. He showed a natural talent for painting at an early age and studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Milan, attending Carlo Botticelli’s art history courses and studying painting with Agostino Comerio (1784–1829). In 1824–5 he attended Tommaso Minardi’s drawing classes in Rome. In 1827 he illustrated the Monumenti di pittura e scultura trascelti in Mantova e nel territorio, and in 1828 the Collezione di ritratti di celebri mantovani, disegnati dal d’Arco e incisi per la maggior parte da Lanfranco Puzzi. He was also responsible for the drawings in his Dipinti nuovamente scoperti di invenzione di Giulio Romano (1832) and collaborated on the illustrations for Giovanni Labus’s Museo della R. Accademia di Mantova (Mantua, 1829–37). Conscious of his artistic shortcomings, thereafter he devoted himself to art criticism and historical research. In 1838, at his own expense, he published and partly illustrated his important monograph ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Paris, May 7, 1869; d Paris, Nov 9, 1927).

French collector, writer and etcher. He began to collect prints at the age of 13 and rapidly established a reputation as a connoisseur and expert, particularly in the field of modern prints. His principal work is the 31-volume series Le Peintre-graveur illustré (Paris, 1906–30); his other publications include works on 19th- and 20th-century prints and c. 500 auction-room catalogues. His own etchings were exhibited at the Salons of 1888 and 1897, and he was an officer of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français and the Société pour l’Etude de la Gravure Française. His first print collection was sold at auction in 1890, the second in Paris, 13–15 June 1928, comprising 404 lots of modern prints.

with N. A. Hazard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre lithographié de H. Daumier (Paris, 1904) Le Peintre-graveur illustré, 31 vols (Paris, 1906–30) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes du XVIII siècle (Paris, 1910) Manuel de l’amateur d’estampes des XIX et XX siècles...