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Article

[emerging art markets]

Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and antiques in the world after the USA (McAndrew 2014). Works of art made by modern and contemporary artists from all four countries regularly fetch more than $1 million at auction.

The rise of the BRICs has coincided with the global integration of what used to be local art markets: demand for and supply of particular artists or artistic movements may now be dispersed across the globe. The boom which global art markets have witnessed in the new millennium can be attributed partially to new buyers from countries like China and Russia developing an interest in art, both old and new. In describing the emergence of the BRICs, the focus in this article will be on modern and contemporary art, since that is where market development has been most significant, both qualitatively and quantitatively....

Article

Kushana  

J. Marr

[Kuṣāṇa; Kushan]

Central Asian dynasty that ruled portions of Afghanistan and India during the first three centuries ad. As part of a tribal confederacy known to the Chinese as Yueh-chih, the Kushanas migrated from Gansu Province in the 2nd century bc west towards Transoxiana, dislodging the Shakas from Bactria (for the Chinese sources, see Basham, pp. 247–58, 346–90). Soon after the beginning of the 1st century ad, the Kushanas gained ascendancy over the other Yuezhi groups. The first king, Kujula Kadphises, and his successor Vima Kadphises, extended Kushana rule southwards to Kabul, Kashmir and the Indian subcontinent. Under the third king, Kanishka I, the Kushanas reached their greatest power. The kingdom extended as far as Varanasi in the east and Sanchi in the south, with capitals at Peshawar (anc. Purushapura) and Mathura. Kanishka’s date of accession is uncertain but most probably falls between ad 78 and 144. An era established in the first year of his reign provides a chronological framework for subsequent kings. From inscriptional evidence, the era appears to have remained in use for 141 years in Gandhara and the Punjab and 157 years in Mathura, the earliest example being a Buddha image, dated year 2, from Kausambi....

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...