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Article

Bi Long  

Chinese, 18th century, male.

Active during the reign of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796).

Born in Taicang (Jiangsu).

Painter.

Bi Long was a painter of bamboos and landscapes and a disciple of Cao Zhibo. He was also a poet and a famous collector of calligraphy and paintings....

Article

Chikuto  

Japanese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1776; died 1853.

Painter. Landscapes, animals.

Nanga (literati) school.

Chikuto was the son of a doctor in Nagoya. At the age of 15, he became the protégé of the rich businessman and collector Kamiya Ten’yu, who was also from Nagoya and through whom he met many artists and studied Chinese pictorial techniques. It was through Tenyu that Chikuto made the acquaintance of the painter Yamamoto Baiitsu (...

Article

Junghee Lee

[Yi]

Korean dynasty that ruled the Korean peninsula from 1392 to 1910. The founder of the dynasty, Yi Sŏng-gye, posthumously known as King T’aejo (reg 1392–8), established Neo-Confucianism as the official ideology, encouraging a modest and practical lifestyle. Thus the patronage of extravagant art was discouraged, and the status of the artist was reduced. Buddhism was often zealously suppressed but remained the private religion of the palace women, the common people and even some kings. T’aejo, for example, built Sŏgwang Temple in north-eastern Korea, the area of his origin; King Sejo (reg 1455–68) built the marble pagoda of the Wŏngak Temple in Seoul in 1466; and the Dowager Queen Munjŏng patronized painters (see Korea, §IV, 2, (i), (d)) and supported temple constructions during the reign of King Myŏngjong (reg 1545–67).

With the establishment of the capital at Hanyang (now Seoul), T’aejo built the Kyŏngbok and Ch’angdŏk palaces and city walls in ...

Article

Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[Sansai]

(b Osaka, 1736; d Osaka, 1802). Japanese collector, scholar, poet, painter and calligrapher. As a boy he undertook the study of medicinal herbs at the apothecary’s shop owned by his father and other relatives. According to tradition he began to have an interest in art when he was about five or six and studied with the Kanō-school master Ōoka Shunboku. He also learnt bird-and-flower painting (kachōga) under Kakutei, a Zen priest from Nagasaki. He first met the literati painter Ike Taiga (see Ike family §(1)) when he was 15, and became his pupil. Taiga’s influence is evident in his Bunjinga (literati painting; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and also in his calligraphy, in which he excelled. Kenkadō also studied seal-carving with Kō Fuyō, a friend of Taiga, and poetry with Katayama Hokkai. He became one of the most erudite and well-known literati in the region. By profession he was a sake brewer and amassed a fortune, which, however, he forfeited when he incurred the wrath of the authorities. He collected a vast range of objects including calligraphy, old writings and paintings, maps, ceramics, utensils for the ...

Article

An Qi  

Laura Rivkin

[An Ch’i; zi Yizhou; hao Lucun]

(bTianjin, Shandong Province, 1683; d after 1742). Chinese art collector and connoisseur. Son of a wealthy salt merchant of Korean descent who was a bannerman (administrative official) in the house of the powerful Manchu statesman Mingzhu, he is best known for his collection of Chinese paintings and calligraphy. He used the family wealth to acquire works by old masters and to commission works by contemporary artists, assembling one of the finest of the collections of Chinese paintings of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911).

Many of the paintings known to have been in his collection had been previously owned by other well-known collectors, most notably Xiang Yuanbian and Liang Qingbiao (1620–91). But unlike Liang Qingbiao and many other earlier collectors, who concentrated their efforts on acquiring the works of old masters, An Qi was also an active patron of contemporary artists. In 1715 he commissioned a portrait of himself (Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) from three artists, ...

Article

Marco Musillo

[Ch’ien-lung; Emperor Gaozong, Kao-tsung; Hongli; hao Changchun Jushi, Xintian Zhuren, Guxi Tianzi, Shichuan Laoren]

(b Beijing, Sept 26, 1711; reg 1736–1796; d Feb 7, 1799). Chinese emperor, collector, and artist. According to the custom of the period, the name Qianlong was the auspicious formal title of the reign but employed for the emperor. His Manchu given name was Hungli (in Chinese Hongli), and he also had the title of Prince Bao given by his father emperor Yongzheng (reg 1723–1735) in 1733. Qianlong is considered one of the greatest collectors of all ages, as well as one of the most important patrons of the arts in Chinese history. Qianlong’s artistic inheritance may be seen as the product of a multilingual and multicultural quest, comprising of the study of foreign technologies and aesthetics both within the Qing empire and outside its borders, a journey that through replication and renovation also changed the interpretation of China’s artistic past.

Qianlong, fourth emperor of the Qing Dynasty (...

Article

Carol Michaelson

[Ch’ing]

Last Chinese dynasty, founded by the Manchus, dating to 1644–1911. The Manchu emperors early became sinicized and patronized all forms of Chinese art and culture. Until the 19th century there was relative prosperity and peace under the Qing. Population and trade increased on an unprecedented scale, and expansion of territory made China the richest and largest state in the world. The reign periods of the Kangxi (1662–1722), Yongzheng (1723–1735) and Qianlong (1736–96) emperors represent the height of Qing cultural attainment. In 1683 Kangxi founded the zaobanchu, a department of public artworks within the palace. He also promoted regional crafts and encouraged the latest Western inventions. Qianlong was also a great patron and collector. As enlightened despots, the emperors won over many patriotic Chinese, particularly by means of publishing enterprises that stimulated intellectual life, and by holding special examinations. In art the emperors were essentially conservative, but many merchants in Yangzhou and elsewhere in the south were also great artistic patrons....

Article

Chinese, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1634, in Shangqiu (Henan); died 1713.

Painter.

Song Luo was a famous scholar, poet and collector who also painted landscapes, orchids and bamboo.

Article

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1766, in Xiushui (Zhejiang); died 1852.

Painter.

Wen Ding was an expert, a collector and a painter. He painted landscapes, pine trees and stones in the style of Wen Zhengming (1470-1559).

Article

Chinese, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1768, in Jiaxing (Zhejiang); died 1848.

Painter, draughtsman, calligrapher.

Zhang Tingji was also a famous collector of paintings and antiques.

New York, 25 Nov 1991: Calligraphy (ink on paper, two stanzas in seal script, 36¼ × 7¾ ins/92.1 × 19.7 cm) ...