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Article

Gordon Campbell

[Gr.: ‘high stone’]

Ancient Greek statue with a wooden body and the head and limbs made of stone (usually marble, sometimes limestone). This technique seems to have come into use in Greece at the end of the 6th century bc or the beginning of the 5th, and was predominantly, but not exclusively, employed for cult statues. The wooden bodies of acrolithic statues were covered in sheets of precious metal or draped with textiles regularly renewed in cult ceremonies. In ancient Greece the term acrolith (usually agalma akrolithos or xoanon akrolithos) was used relatively rarely, and is first attested in temple inventories of the 2nd century bc; Vitruvius uses it in Latin as a synonym for colossal statues. It was then reintroduced as a technical term by 18th-century antiquarians.

While the wooden bodies of ancient acroliths are not preserved, their stone extremities have occasionally survived and can be identified through specific characteristics of their technical manufacture (acrolithic heads, for example, have flat undersides, whereas heads fashioned for insertion into stone bodies were made with convex tenons). In the Hellenistic and Roman periods, the extent of stone elements can increase, so that for example the head and naked parts of the chest are made of one marble segment. The appearance of acroliths could be similar to chryselephantine (gold-ivory) statues, to which they may have offered a more cost-effective alternative, although it seems that other considerations, such as their role within the cult ritual, may have been of greater significance. Examples of surviving stone fragments from acroliths are a colossal head in the Ludovisi collection in Rome and an ...

Article

Thorsten Opper

Elaborate monument erected by Octavian (later Augustus) in 29–27 bc on the Preveza Peninsula in Western Greece, north of the present-day town of Preveza, overlooking Cape Actium, to commemorate his naval victory over Mark Antony at Actium in 31 bc. The nearby city of Nikopolis (Gr.: ‘city of victory’) was founded for the same purpose at about the same time.

According to the historian Dio Cassius (Roman History LI.i.3), after his victory Octavian laid a foundation of square stones on the spot where he had pitched his tent, which he then adorned with the captured ships’ rams. On this foundation, according to Dio, Octavian established an open-air shrine dedicated to Apollo. Suetonius (Augustus xviii.2) and Strabo (Geography VII.vii.6) corroborate this evidence, although the trophy itself (with the ships’ rams) was, according to Suetonius, dedicated to Poseidon and Mars, presumably for their help during the battle. The hill itself was, according to Strabo, sacred to Apollo, and therefore the shrine was dedicated to him....

Article

Charles M. Edwards

[Hageladas]

(fl c. 520–c. 450 bc).

Greek sculptor. Said to be the teacher of Polykleitos, Myron and Pheidias, he was a bronze sculptor from Argos, active in the Late Archaic and Early Classical periods. His early works were statues at Olympia for victors of 520 bc, 516 bc and 507 bc. His monument at Delphi depicting captive Massapian women and horses may belong to the second quarter of the 5th century bc. The Zeus Ithomatas for the Messenians at Naupaktos was probably made in the 450s bc. A problem is posed by the date of his Herakles Alexikakos in Athens, said to be a dedication after the plague in the 420s bc. That has led to speculation on the existence of a second Ageladas. The dates of his Zeus Pais and Youthful Herakles at Aigion are unknown. The statues for the Messenians and at Aigion seem to have been under life-size since they were easily transportable. A sense of their appearance is given by coins that show statues with stances like that of the ...

Article

A. Delivorrias

(b Paros, fl c. 450–c. 420 bc).

Greek sculptor. He was a prominent member of the group of artists led by Pheidias that executed the Periclean building programme on the Athenian Acropolis. Ancient literary sources provide little information on his career, and even this takes the form of later anecdotes, such as the story of his rivalry with Alkamenes in a competition to produce a statue of Aphrodite (Pliny: Natural History, XXXVI.iv.17), or has been distorted by the legends surrounding Pheidias, to whom two of his works were wrongly attributed: his statue of the Enthroned Mother of the Gods in the metroon in the Athenian Agora (Pausanias: Guide to Greece, I.iii.5) and his cult statue of Nemesis (c. 420 bc; Pausanias: I.xxxiii.3) for the temple at Rhamnous. The Nemesis was allegedly carved out of a colossal block of Parian marble brought to Marathon in 490 bc by the Persians, who intended to use it for a trophy after defeating the Athenians (Pausanias: I.xxxiii.2). Agorakritos was also credited with bronze statues of ...

Article

A. Delivorrias

(fl second half of the 5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. His date of birth and origins are uncertain; later sources mention both Athens and Lemnos as his birthplace. After the departure of Pheidias to Olympia, Alkamenes became the most eminent exponent of Athenian art. Sources that regard him as a student of Pheidias are not reliable, and the workshop in which he trained and developed his stylistic idiom is unknown. The number of his works in Athenian public buildings and the fact that Thrasybulus entrusted him with the production of a commemorative monument for his Theban allies after the fall of the Tyranny in 403 bc implies that Alkamenes was a supporter of the democratic party.

This monument, the form of which is difficult to visualize, is Alkamenes’ last attested work. His earliest work remains unknown, despite increasing acceptance of the assertion by Pausanias (V.x.8) that Alkamenes helped to execute the architectural sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. Two ‘archaistic’ works for the Athenian Acropolis indicate that he must already have been active before the mid-...

Article

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl first quarter of the 5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. The Greek city states that defeated the Persians at Plataia in 479 bc set aside a tithe for Zeus at Olympia from which was made a bronze statue of the god, 10 cubits tall. When Pausanias visited Olympia he saw the statue standing near the Bouleuterion and assigned it to Anaxagoras (...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1945.

Born 24 March 1917, in São Paulo, to Greek parents.

Sculptor, painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver. Portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Born in Brazil to Greek parents, Constantin Andreu went with them to Athens in 1925. In 1932 he decided to become a sculptor but then had to earn his living as a cabinet maker. He was nevertheless able to follow courses at the school of applied arts in the city. In ...

Article

Greek, 20th century, female.

Active in France.

Born on Corfu.

Sculptor.

Lamprothea Angelaton exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1934 onwards, became a member in 1937 and exhibited there again in 1942.

Article

Antenor  

Kim Richardson

(fl Athens, c. 530-c. 0510 bc).

Greek sculptor. A statue base signed by Antenor, son of Eumares, and indicating a dedication by Nearchos (perhaps the potter of that name who was working in the 560s bc) has been matched almost certainly with an outstanding kore found on the Acropolis of Athens in 1886 and hence called the Antenor Kore (h. incl. plinth 2.15 m; Athens, Acropolis Mus., 681). The kore is a conservative work of c.520 bc. Both arms are held unusually far from the body, which is powerfully modelled, the strong vertical folds of its himation (cloak) giving a columnar effect. Such features as the inlaid eyes and thin ankles betray a bronze worker: Pausanias (Guide to Greece I.viii.5) recorded that Antenor produced bronze statues of the tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton, which were carried off by Xerxes in 480/479 bc and replaced by Kritios Nesiotes’ famous group. The Antenor statues remained at Persepolis until Alexander the Great or one of his successors returned them to Athens, where they were placed in the Agora alongside the second group. A Roman head (London, BM) is perhaps a copy of Antenor’s ...

Article

Thorsten Opper

Source of a group of Roman and Greek works of art, in particular a group of Greek bronze sculptures and statuettes. In 1900 sponge-divers discovered the remains of an ancient shipwreck in the sea off the Greek island of Antikythera. In one of the first operations of this kind, they salvaged some its cargo. A new investigation of the wreck site took place in 1976 and succeeded in recovering many further objects, as well as (still unpublished) remains of the hull. All the finds are now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. The ship, which must have foundered in the second quarter of the 1st century bc, carried a mixed cargo of ‘antique’ and contemporary bronze and marble statuary, as well as luxury products such as bronze furniture attachments, rare and expensive types of glass, gold ingots etc. It also contained the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, an elaborate type of astrolabe....

Article

Thorsten Opper

(b Claudiopolis [Bithynion] c. ad 110; d Egypt, October ad 130).

Greek youth from north-western Asia Minor who became the companion and lover of the Roman emperor Hadrian (reg ad 117–138) until his mysterious death in the Nile in October ad 130. The bereaved emperor gave orders for Antinous to be deified as Antinous-Osiris and founded a new city, Antinoöpolis, close to the spot where Antinous had died. From there, his cult spread rapidly over the empire, especially the Greek-speaking areas, where festivals in his honour were established and an astounding number of images dedicated. Most remarkable (apart from preserved representations on coins, gems etc, and paintings attested in literary sources) were his sculptured portraits, frequently likened to gods of the Classical Pantheon, of which nearly 100 have survived—a number surpassed only by the portraits of the emperors Augustus and Hadrian. Their ubiquity and often high quality made them icons of ancient art, highly influential and frequently copied from the Renaissance onwards....

Article

Gail L. Hoffman

(fl c. 414–c. 369 bc).

Greek sculptor of the Argive school, student of Periklytos (who was himself a pupil of Polykleitos), teacher of Kleon of Sikyon, and thus in the circle of the elder Polykleitos (Pausanias: V.xvii.3). With no preserved sculpture, knowledge of Antiphanes derives entirely from Pausanias’ description (X.ix) of three Delphic monuments and three signatures: first, a bronze Trojan Horse dedicated by the Argives for a battle over Thyrea, probably the battle of 414 bc referred to by Thucydides (VI.xcv); also a Dioskouroi dedicated by Sparta as spoils from the battle of Aigospotamoi (405 bc; Dittenberger, no. 115); and finally, statues of Elatos, Apheidas and Erasos, which Pausanias claimed were part of the Tegean spoils from a battle with Sparta. A 4th-century bc inscription on a black limestone base may indicate that the dedicants were Arcadians, not just Tegeans, and thus that the battle was the devastation of Lakonia in 369 bc...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Born in Smyrna (now Izmir).

Sculptor. Portraits. Busts.

Athanase Apartis executed mostly busts or portraits, especially of contemporary personalities, such as: the former Greek prime minister Venizelos, the French philosopher Alain, and the French writer Georges Duhamel. He exhibited in Paris at the Salon d'Automne from ...

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Born 1909, on Corfu.

Sculptor.

Achilles Apergis studied at the school of fine arts in Athens.

Up to 1950, his work was figurative in style, after which he evolved progressively towards Abstraction. In a first series of sculptures made from soldered sheet metal, the inspiration still originates from the observation of nature. Later he began to use iron bars, which gave his sculptures a more robust, yet less figurative, character. From ...

Article

Jeffrey M. Hurwit

(fl 550 bc or later).

Greek sculptor. The son of Mikkiades and father of the sculptors Bupalos and Athenis, Archermos was credited with creating the first winged figure of Nike (Victory) in Greek art; his works were apparently to be seen on Delos and Lesbos. A column signed by Archermos, that may have supported a Nike, was dedicated on the Athenian Acropolis in the late 6th century bc, and a badly damaged statue base from Delos has a much-restored inscription (written in the script of the island of Paros) suggesting that Mikkiades and his son Archermos dedicated the statue to Artemis after they had left their homeland of Chios. A statue found in the same general area as the base, and like it datable to c. 550 bc, is the so-called (and originally winged) Nike of Delos (Athens, N. Archaeol. Mus.. It is, however, not absolutely certain that the Nike belongs to the base, or, if it does, that it stood there alone. Assuming the ...

Article

Greek, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1954, in Athens.

Draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, video artist. Multimedia.

Michalis Arfaras first studied painting at the school of fine arts in Athens between 1972 and 1974. He continued his studies at the college of fine arts in Brunswick in Germany where he specialised in engraving and produced book illustrations and comic strips. He now lives and works in Hildesheim where he teaches graphic art at the university....

Article

Greek, 20th century, female.

Born in Athens.

Sculptor.

Argyropoulo was a pupil of François Léon Sicard, and exhibited in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris from 1932 to 1939.

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active in Austria.

Born 26 September 1922, in Batumi, to Greek parents.

Sculptor.

Between 1937 and 1939, Joannis Avramidis studied at the Batumi school of fine arts, before going to Athens, where he continued to study painting from 1939 to 1943...

Article

Thorsten Opper

In 1954 a large number of fragments of ancient plaster casts came to light in the Roman city of Baiae on the gulf of Naples. Of a total of 430 fragments, 293 were in a condition that allowed further analysis. This revealed that they originally belonged to a group of 24–35 full-length statues that formed a representative collection of plaster copies of Greek bronze originals (gods, heroes, mythological figures) mainly of the 5th and 4th centuries bc. Twelve of these statues could be identified through comparison with Roman marble copies (e.g. Tyrant Slayers, Ephesian Amazons, Athena Velletri, Westmacott Ephebe, Hera Borghese, Eirene and Ploutos). For others likely identifications have been suggested, but cannot be proven (e.g. Doryphoros). The Baiae plaster statues were technically highly accomplished (hollow-cast figures with internal armatures, probably the first casts produced from high-quality moulds), and are likely to have been imported, perhaps from a place such as Athens, where at least three of the originals were located....