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Article

Shannen Hill

Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’, was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that curtailed the economic, political, and social rights of black, coloured, and Indian people. Enforced through the legislation of the National Party, apartheid was the rule of the land between ...

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Friedrich Zettl

Chinese painter and art historian. He was one of the last great literati or scholar–amateur painters in China and formed a link between the traditional élite literati painters and the new artists of the 20th century. He also combined traditional methods with Western techniques and concepts, which earned him the respect of admirers of the classical tradition, as well as popularity with those of modern outlook. For the support he received from the new regime, Fu Baoshi reciprocated by, among other things, painting pictures that made reference to the poems of Mao Zedong. Fu is particularly renowned for his landscape paintings, in which he introduced new methods of depicting mountains, and for his images of people....

Article

He graduated from the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul in 1924 and then worked under Ernest Laurent at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. On returning to Turkey in 1928 he was a founder-member of the Association of Independent Painters and Sculptors (Müstakil ressamlar ve heykeltraşlar birliği). He went to Paris again in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of ...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ...

Article

Kōzō Sasaki

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (...

Article

Daoji  

Wen Fong

Chinese painter and calligrapher. In modern Western writing he is most commonly referred to as Daoji or Shitao, although he himself preferred the name Yuanji. He was a descendant of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) imperial Zhu family. In 1645, in the face of invading Manchu troops, a family servant fled with Daoji to nearby Quanzhou, Guangxi Province, and in ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

Chinese painter, calligrapher, collector and forger . From an artistic family, he began to paint under the tutelage of his mother, Ceng Yi, and did his first paid painting for the local fortune-teller when he was 12 years old. Zhang’s elder sister gave him his first lessons in the classics. At 15 he embarked on three years of schooling at the Qiujing Academy in Chongqing. In ...

Article

Yasuyoshi Saito

Japanese photographer, painter, printmaker and critic. In 1925 he entered the department of yōga (Western-style painting) at the Japanese School of Art in Tokyo. In 1926 he began writing art criticism and in 1927 he left the School, going on in 1930 to study at the School of Oriental Photography, Tokyo. In ...

Article

Qingli Wan and Chu-Tsing Li

Chinese painter. He was designated one of the Four Masters of the Yuan, together with Ni Zan, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng. Born into a family named Lu, he was orphaned when very young. The impoverished Lu family had him adopted when he was seven or eight by a Mr Huang of Yongjia, Zhejiang Province, who was living in Changshu at the time. Since Huang was about 90 years old and without male offspring, the names Huang Gongwang and Zijiu were chosen, which together mean ‘Mr Huang has desired a son for a long time’....

Article

Chinese, 17th century, male.

Born before 1585, in Suzhou (Jiangsu); died after 1645.

Painter.

Gu Ningyuan painted landscapes in the style of Dong Yuan (d. 962) and Juran (active c.960-980). He was also a theorist and the author of the Hua Yin. This treatise is a short work divided into eleven brief sections on different subjects: theoretical (inspiration, spiritual rhythm, crudeness and primitiveness), technical (paintbrush and ink, how to paint water, dry ink and wet ink, etc.) and critical (a classification of the main painters from antiquity, the Yuan and the Ming). Although hardly original, the work has some value as a documentation....

Article

Karen M. Gerhart

Japanese painter, art critic and theorist. His family was descended from a tea master and samurai vassal of warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but by the time of Gyokushū’s birth the Kuwayama had given up Samurai status and become well-to-do shipping merchants. His highly influential essay on ...

Article

Xie He  

Keith Pratt

Chinese painter and writer . A portrait painter at the court of the Southern Qi dynasty in Nanjing, he is renowned as the author of the earliest extant Chinese text on the theory of painting and one of the most influential. His work Gu huapin lu...

Article

Chinese, 19th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 19th century.

Born 1763; died 1820 (?).

Painter.

Jiao Xun was a scholar, mathematician and literary theorist during the Qing dynasty. He is not mentioned in the biographies of artists but is known for his ...

Article

Sook-Kyung Lee

One of the characteristics of Korean contemporary art is a continuous effort in employing and interpreting international art practices and discourses. Art movements from Europe and North America in particular, including Abstract Expressionism, Art informel, Minimalism, Conceptual art and Post-modernism, have influenced many Korean artists’ styles and ideas since the 1950s, providing formal and conceptual grounds for critical understandings and further experiments. Whilst some artists who maintained traditional art forms such as ink painting and calligraphy exercised modernist styles and abstract forms largely within the norms and conventions of traditional genres, a large group of artists proactively adapted to Western styles, employing new materials and techniques as well as the notions of avant-garde and experimentalism (...

Article

David Elliott

Russian poet, critic, graphic designer and painter of Georgian birth. Although best known as a poet and playwright he studied painting at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1911–14) and, as a member of the Futurist group Hylea, was a pioneer of what later became known as ...

Article

Japanese, 16th century, male.

Painter.

Some art historians associate or rather identify Nobuharu with Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610), even though many details of the latter’s life are obscure. The name Nobuharu appears on several Buddhist portraits and paintings that are characterised by a very fine but slightly sentimental style. It is on account of this sentimentality that other art historians do not identify the two artists with each other....

Article

Kate Wilson

Lineage of Chinese landscape painting defined in the late 16th century and early 17th by the critics and theorists Dong Qichang, Chen Jiru and Mo Shilong (c.1538–87). The Northern school is seen as opposed to the Southern school. Dong Qichang and his contemporaries sought to rejuvenate painting by studying correct ancient models and identified the two schools as the main painting traditions, positioning major artists of the past within one or the other. The terms Northern and Southern relate not to geographical areas but to a division in Chan (Jap. Zen) Buddhism. Thus artists of the Northern school are associated with the Northern division of Chan, which holds that enlightenment is gradual and achieved through diligent application. This is not to suggest that Northern school artists were necessarily followers of Chan Buddhism; rather, their approach to painting was, in the opinion of the theorists, analogous with the courtly, instructional teaching of Northern Chan. The analogy applies both to the artists’ manner of working and to their style of painting....

Article

Burglind Jungmann

Korean painter . The few biographical references make it difficult to decide whether he should be considered a court or a literati painter. The art historian An Hwi-jun includes him among the latter on the basis of a passage in which he is listed together with the vice-director of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ) Sin Se-rim (...