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Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active also active in the USA.

Born 1919.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Atelier Torres García.

A student of Torres García, Alpuy lived in New York for several years, which was undoubtedly what enabled him to combine a free representational style with a more rigorously Constructivist composition. He usually worked on wooden boards that he painted and shaped according to his imagination. His figures are positioned according to Constructivist principles....

Article

Venezuelan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 6 March 1947.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Luis Arnal studied at the school of fine arts in Caracas and then in Paris at the École Pratique des Hautes Études and the University in Paris. He exhibits mainly in Venezuela. Arnal is a self-declared Constructivist and this is borne out in the technical rigour of his pieces and the phenomenological games he plays with contrasting, bright colours. He uses almost exclusively curves and counter-curves....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Italy.

Born 1892, in Tenque-Lauquen; died 1978.

Painter.

Futurism, Neo-Constructivism.

Grupo Madí.

In 1908, Bay emigrated from the outskirts of Buenos Aires to Milan. He studied drawing and painting until 1914. From 1911 in Milan and throughout Italy until ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Vaudreuil (Quebec).

Sculptor, designer.

Neo-Constructivism, Kinetic Art.

Jean-Jacques Besner lives in Montreal. After studying at the University of Montreal, he applied what he had learnt to his sculptural creations. He continued his training at the International School of Architecture. In ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(Lajos)

(b Pécs, May 21, 1902; d New York, July 1, 1981).

American furniture designer and architect of Hungarian birth. In 1920 he took up a scholarship at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, but he left almost immediately to find a job in an architect’s office. A few weeks later he enrolled at the Bauhaus at Weimar on the recommendation of the Hungarian architect Fred Forbat (1897–1972). Breuer soon became an outstanding student in the carpentry workshop, which he led in its endeavours to find radically innovative forms for modern furniture. In practice, this meant rejecting traditional forms, which were considered symbolic of bourgeois life. The results of these experiments were initially as idiosyncratic as those of other workshops at Weimar, including the adoption of non-Western forms, for example the African chair (1921; see Rowland, 1990, p. 66) and an aggressively castellated style inspired by Constructivism.

Breuer was impressed by De Stijl, whose founder Theo van Doesburg made his presence felt in Weimar in ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1952.

Born 23 January 1926, in Buenos Aires; died 31 January 1995, in Chartres, France.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

From 1943 to 1950 Carlos Cairoli studied at the academy of art in Buenos Aires, rising to the rank of lecturer, then ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1913, in Havana; died 20 December 1999, in Santiago de Chile.

Painter. Scenes with figures, local scenes.

Neo-Constructivism.

Mario Carreno studied for a short time at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana, then left for Madrid where he worked as a designer of comics. He visited Mexico in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 23 October 1920, in Belo Horizonte; died 1988.

Sculptor, painter.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art, Body Art.

Grupo Frente.

Clark studied in Brazil under the direction of Burle-Marx in 1947, then went to Paris in 1948 and worked with Fernand Léger, Arpad Szenes and Dabrinsky. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 23 July 1914, in Greece. Died 23 November 2010, in Provincetown, Massechusetts.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

Nassos Daphnis emigrated to the USA in 1930 and took part in numerous group exhibitions - notably the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh in 1958 and ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy from 1968.

Born 1944, in Paraiba.

Painter.

Conceptual Art, Neo-Constructivism, Figuration Narrative.

Dias' early works were inspired by the geometric abstraction of Torres García. Between 1965 and 1968 he produced paintings and montages glorifying violence in a visual language influenced by Pop Art, and after ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Campina Grande, Feb 22, 1944).

Brazilian painter. In 1958 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he soon began to produce works influenced by the symbolic Constructivism of Joaquín Torres García. From 1964 he moved away from flat surfaces towards a greater use of space in emotionally charged montages that make aggressive use of images and materials. After winning a prize at the Paris Biennale of 1965, he went to Europe and from 1968 lived in Milan. There he adopted a conceptual approach in paintings, videos, films, records and artist’s books, using each medium to question the meaning of art. After a visit to Nepal in 1977 and under the influence of Jung, a reassessment of his work led to the incorporation of a symbolic dimension, in pictures often drawn on handmade Nepalese paper (Song of the Axe, ferrous oxide, shellac, graphite, metallic pigment, 1982; São Paulo, Robert Blocker priv. col.).

Some Artists Do, Some Not...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1920.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

The first São Paulo Biennale was held in 1951. It suddenly offered young Brazilian and Latin-American artists a panoramic overview of art during the first half of the 20th century, and the impact was considerable. First it was Constructivist art that caught the imagination of the new audience. By ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in New Orleans.

Sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism, Op Art.

Lillian Florsheim assembles transparent Plexiglas tubes and discs in a Constructivist style, building up long and tall rhythmic columns. She exhibits mainly in the United Sates, but also in Tel Aviv and Paris, and has held shows of kinetic art in Germany....

Article

Colin C. Sanderson

[Pevzner, Naum (Borisovich)]

(b Klimovichi, Belarus, Aug 5, 1890; d Waterbury, CT, Aug 23, 1977).

American sculptor of Belorussian birth. He was brought up in the Russian town of Bryansk, where his father owned a metallurgy business. Early paintings display his romantic and literary spirit, for example Self-portrait (c. 1907–10; artist’s family priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., pl. 128), but in 1910 he went to the University of Munich to study medical and scientific subjects (1910–12), then philosophy and history of art (1912–14). The lectures of Heinrich Wölfflin and the writings of Henri Bergson were significant influences on him at this time. Gabo also studied engineering at the Technische Hochschule, Munich (1912–14), where there was a large collection of mathematical models. During World War I he took refuge in Norway (1914–17) and started working with his ‘stereometric method’ of construction, one of several techniques he adopted from such models, and through which he made a significant contribution to the development of the language of ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Villanova (Pennsylvania); died 1952, in New York.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

American Abstract Artists (AAA).

Albert Gallatin studied law at the New York Law School. He made frequent visits to Paris from 1921 until 1938, where he was acquainted with the avant-garde of the art world, and built up a famous collection which he called the ...

Article

Gilbert Herbert

(Adolf Georg)

(b Berlin, May 18, 1883; d Boston, MA, July 5, 1969).

American architect, industrial designer and teacher of German birth. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of the Modern Movement, whose contribution lay as much in his work as theoretician and teacher as it did in his innovative architecture. The important buildings and projects in Gropius’s career—the early factories, the Bauhaus complex at Dessau (1925–6), the Totaltheater project for Berlin, the housing estates and prefabricated dwellings—were all more than immediate answers to specific problems. Rather, they were a series of researches in which he sought prototypical solutions that would offer universal applicability. They were also didactic in purpose—concrete demonstrations, manifestos, of his theories and beliefs. His theories sought to integrate the individual and society, art and industry, form and function and the part with the whole. He left Germany for England in 1934; three years later he emigrated to the USA, where he continued to teach, write and design for the rest of his life....

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1910, in Toronto.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Lawren Philips Harris studied at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts School in 1931-1932, but received most of his training from his father, Lawren Stewart Harris, and the other painters with whom he associated. He went into the army in ...

Article

Venezuelan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France from 1977.

Born 1952, in Campo Carabobo.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Grupo Madí.

Octavio Herrera has exhibited since 1980 and since 1990 with the Grupo Madí, notably in 1997 at the Abstraction-Intégration touring exhibition in the Essonne.

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Buenos Aires; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman.

Neo-Constructivism.

Groups: Arte Concreto Invención, Artistas Modernos de la Argentina.

Alfredo Hlito studied at the school of fine arts in Buenos Aires but soon came under the influence of Torres García. In ...