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Article

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active also active in the USA.

Born 1919.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Atelier Torres García.

A student of Torres García, Alpuy lived in New York for several years, which was undoubtedly what enabled him to combine a free representational style with a more rigorously Constructivist composition. He usually worked on wooden boards that he painted and shaped according to his imagination. His figures are positioned according to Constructivist principles....

Article

Venezuelan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 6 March 1947.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Luis Arnal studied at the school of fine arts in Caracas and then in Paris at the École Pratique des Hautes Études and the University in Paris. He exhibits mainly in Venezuela. Arnal is a self-declared Constructivist and this is borne out in the technical rigour of his pieces and the phenomenological games he plays with contrasting, bright colours. He uses almost exclusively curves and counter-curves....

Article

Nelly Perazzo

Argentine movement of the 1940s based in Buenos Aires and led by Gyula Košice and the Uruguayan artists Carmelo Arden Quin (b 1913) and Rhod Rothfuss (b 1920). Together with Joaquín Torres García and the Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (b 1919), they were responsible for the publication in early 1944 of a single issue of a magazine, Arturo, which heralded the development of the Constructivist movement in Argentina, stressing the importance of pure invention and of interdisciplinary links. Tomás Maldonado, who designed the cover, and Lidy Prati (b 1921), who was responsible for most of the vignettes, soon dissociated themselves from their colleagues to help set up the Asociación arte concreto invención; the editorial content of the magazine, however, suggested a coherent aesthetic that was also promoted in booklets published by Košice and Bayley in 1945 and in two exhibitions, Art Concret Invention...

Article

Argentine group of artists formed in 1952 and active until 1954. It was founded on the initiative of the art critic Aldo Pellegrini (1903–75) as a union of Constructivist painters belonging to the Asociación arte concreto invención—Tomás Maldonado, Alfredo Hlito, Lidy Prati (b 1921), Ennio Iommi and Claudio Girola (b 1923)—and four independent semi-abstract artists: José Antonio Fernández Muro, Sarah Grilo, Miguel Ocampo and Hans Aebi (b 1923). Pellegrini’s main concern was with the quality of the artists’ work rather than with a shared programme. They were the first abstract artists in Argentina to exhibit together as a group abroad: in 1953 they showed both at the Museu de Arte Moderna in Rio de Janeiro and at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.

Pelligrini was pleased with the genuine interaction within the group. The work of the independent artists became more rigorous and economical, inclining progressively towards geometric abstraction, and their lack of dogmatism in turn led the Constructivists to adopt a more flexible approach. The group disbanded on Maldonado’s move to Germany in ...

Article

Arturo  

Article

Argentine group formed in November 1945 by Tomás Maldonado and other Constructivist artists and active until c. 1964. Its other original members were Lidy Prati (b 1921), Alfredo Hlito, Manuel Espinosa, Raúl Lozza (b 1911), Alberto Molenberg (b 1921), Ennio Iommi, Claudio Girola (b 1923), Jorge Souza (b 1919), Primaldo Mónaco (b 1921), Oscar Núñez (b 1919), Antonio Caraduje (b 1920) and the poet Edgar Bayley (b 1919). Maldonado and Prati were prominent among the artists involved in the publication of the single issue of the magazine Arturo in early 1944, in which the image–invention was proposed as an alternative to representational, naturalistic or symbolic imagery, but they did not take part in two exhibitions of associated artists in 1945 that led to the establishment of Arte Madí. In fact, their central role in setting up the Asociación Arte Concreto Invención was a way of declaring their independence from the other group....

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in Italy.

Born 1892, in Tenque-Lauquen; died 1978.

Painter.

Futurism, Neo-Constructivism.

Grupo Madí.

In 1908, Bay emigrated from the outskirts of Buenos Aires to Milan. He studied drawing and painting until 1914. From 1911 in Milan and throughout Italy until ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1952.

Born 23 January 1926, in Buenos Aires; died 31 January 1995, in Chartres, France.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

From 1943 to 1950 Carlos Cairoli studied at the academy of art in Buenos Aires, rising to the rank of lecturer, then ...

Article

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Born 1913, in Havana; died 20 December 1999, in Santiago de Chile.

Painter. Scenes with figures, local scenes.

Neo-Constructivism.

Mario Carreno studied for a short time at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes San Alejandro in Havana, then left for Madrid where he worked as a designer of comics. He visited Mexico in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 23 October 1920, in Belo Horizonte; died 1988.

Sculptor, painter.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art, Body Art.

Grupo Frente.

Clark studied in Brazil under the direction of Burle-Marx in 1947, then went to Paris in 1948 and worked with Fernand Léger, Arpad Szenes and Dabrinsky. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy from 1968.

Born 1944, in Paraiba.

Painter.

Conceptual Art, Neo-Constructivism, Figuration Narrative.

Dias' early works were inspired by the geometric abstraction of Torres García. Between 1965 and 1968 he produced paintings and montages glorifying violence in a visual language influenced by Pop Art, and after ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Campina Grande, Feb 22, 1944).

Brazilian painter. In 1958 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he soon began to produce works influenced by the symbolic Constructivism of Joaquín Torres García. From 1964 he moved away from flat surfaces towards a greater use of space in emotionally charged montages that make aggressive use of images and materials. After winning a prize at the Paris Biennale of 1965, he went to Europe and from 1968 lived in Milan. There he adopted a conceptual approach in paintings, videos, films, records and artist’s books, using each medium to question the meaning of art. After a visit to Nepal in 1977 and under the influence of Jung, a reassessment of his work led to the incorporation of a symbolic dimension, in pictures often drawn on handmade Nepalese paper (Song of the Axe, ferrous oxide, shellac, graphite, metallic pigment, 1982; São Paulo, Robert Blocker priv. col.).

Some Artists Do, Some Not...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, male.

Born 1920.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

The first São Paulo Biennale was held in 1951. It suddenly offered young Brazilian and Latin-American artists a panoramic overview of art during the first half of the 20th century, and the impact was considerable. First it was Constructivist art that caught the imagination of the new audience. By ...

Article

Venezuelan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France from 1977.

Born 1952, in Campo Carabobo.

Painter.

Neo-Constructivism.

Grupo Madí.

Octavio Herrera has exhibited since 1980 and since 1990 with the Grupo Madí, notably in 1997 at the Abstraction-Intégration touring exhibition in the Essonne.

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1923, in Buenos Aires; died 1993.

Painter, draughtsman.

Neo-Constructivism.

Groups: Arte Concreto Invención, Artistas Modernos de la Argentina.

Alfredo Hlito studied at the school of fine arts in Buenos Aires but soon came under the influence of Torres García. In ...

Article

Horacio Safons

(b Buenos Aires, May 4, 1923; d 1993).

Argentine painter. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires from 1938 to 1942 and in 1945 was a founder-member of the Asociación Arte Concreto Invención. He played a leading role in the development of abstract art in Argentina during the 1940s and 1950s. From 1945 he worked in a Constructivist style that took as its starting-point the notion of a line fracturing the plane in the work of Joaquín Torres García; by the early 1950s this was elaborated into compositions of pure geometrical forms. From 1954 to 1962 he explored effects of vibrating colour, first using discernible forms conveyed in a pointillist technique and then by juxtaposing lightly applied flat brushstrokes in diluted colours to create a shimmering veil-like surface.

While living in Mexico from 1963 to 1973, Hlito developed a vocabulary of rhythmic, fundamentally organic forms using curved lines; these led to acrylic paintings in a vertical format in which vibrant atmospheres, interpenetrated by dynamic planes, generated monumental spaces of glittering colour. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Rosario.

Sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

Arte Concreto Invención Group.

Enio Iommi trained with his father, a sculptor and engraver of Italian origin. He was one of the founders of the Arte Concreto Invención group in Buenos Aires and in 1960...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Rosario, March 20, 1926).

Argentine sculptor. His father was a sculptor, and Iommi studied in his father’s workshop and attended metalwork courses. He was a founder-member of the Asociación Arte Concreto Invención and is one of the most representative Constructivist sculptors in Argentina. In 1954 he created Continual Forms (white concrete, 2.0×0.8×1.2 m), a sculpture for a house in La Plata designed by Le Corbusier. His highly formal work was characterized at first by an economy of means, rigorous logic and dynamic rhythms and tensions, with an intelligible and rational structure of form that was optimistic in tone. It was with such works that he won a gold medal in Brussels at the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in 1958, took part in the exhibition Concret Art at the Kunsthaus, Zurich, in 1958, and participated hors concours in the São Paulo Biennale in 1961 and Venice Biennale in 1964.

Iommi completely changed direction in 1977...

Article

Ticio Escobar

(b Asunción, 1921; d Asunción, May 14, 1993).

Paraguayan painter and engraver. She studied under Jaime Bestard and Lívio Abramo in Asunción and from 1958 in São Paulo, Brazil. Her paintings of the 1950s were Cubist-inspired landscapes and still-lifes in oils. In the late 1950s she began to transpose her schematized pictorial style into wood-engraving; in the early 1960s her engravings were increasingly based on the simple play of black and white and textures, and she then passed through a phase of abstraction related to Art informel finally to reach a purified but effectively suggestive abstraction based on organic forms. Her engravings of this period show her skill in synthesis and her capacity for expression: large shapes are realized straightforwardly in black and white but are animated by an intense inner energy. In the 1970s she embarked on a new technique based on multiple impressions and the use of colour: large masses of strong shades and contrasting tones were superimposed and juxtaposed to provoke special chromatic tensions. This series of engravings, entitled ...