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Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Vaudreuil (Quebec).

Sculptor, designer.

Neo-Constructivism, Kinetic Art.

Jean-Jacques Besner lives in Montreal. After studying at the University of Montreal, he applied what he had learnt to his sculptural creations. He continued his training at the International School of Architecture. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1952.

Born 23 January 1926, in Buenos Aires; died 31 January 1995, in Chartres, France.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

From 1943 to 1950 Carlos Cairoli studied at the academy of art in Buenos Aires, rising to the rank of lecturer, then ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th century, female.

Born 23 October 1920, in Belo Horizonte; died 1988.

Sculptor, painter.

Neo-Constructivism, Conceptual Art, Body Art.

Grupo Frente.

Clark studied in Brazil under the direction of Burle-Marx in 1947, then went to Paris in 1948 and worked with Fernand Léger, Arpad Szenes and Dabrinsky. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 27 November 1937, in Buenos Aires.

Installation artist, painter, draughtsman, sculptor, photographer, mixed media.

Neo-Constructivism.

Cafone was a student at the school of art in Buenos Aires and at the Slade School in London. A sculptor who abandoned his sculptor's tools very early on, he looked to drawing as a medium through which to find an equivalent, a medium in which he proved to have astonishing dexterity. His paintings employ mixed media, incorporating sheets of lead, for example. Harking back to his work as an installation sculptor, he also took the venue in which he was exhibiting into account, if needs be creating certain works directly onto the walls of the gallery. If a certain preciousness of materials, and in particular the ornamental details, are set aside, there is a relationship here between Cofone's work and Minimalism, given their common refusal to attach any meaning to the completed object other than the one that defines - in the most material terms possible - its physical relationship with the artist who has created it, not in his image, but on his scale....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 23 July 1914, in Greece. Died 23 November 2010, in Provincetown, Massechusetts.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

Nassos Daphnis emigrated to the USA in 1930 and took part in numerous group exhibitions - notably the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh in 1958 and ...

Article

American, 20th century, female.

Born in New Orleans.

Sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism, Op Art.

Lillian Florsheim assembles transparent Plexiglas tubes and discs in a Constructivist style, building up long and tall rhythmic columns. She exhibits mainly in the United Sates, but also in Tel Aviv and Paris, and has held shows of kinetic art in Germany....

Article

Colin C. Sanderson

[Pevzner, Naum (Borisovich)]

(b Klimovichi, Belarus, Aug 5, 1890; d Waterbury, CT, Aug 23, 1977).

American sculptor of Belorussian birth. He was brought up in the Russian town of Bryansk, where his father owned a metallurgy business. Early paintings display his romantic and literary spirit, for example Self-portrait (c. 1907–10; artist’s family priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., pl. 128), but in 1910 he went to the University of Munich to study medical and scientific subjects (1910–12), then philosophy and history of art (1912–14). The lectures of Heinrich Wölfflin and the writings of Henri Bergson were significant influences on him at this time. Gabo also studied engineering at the Technische Hochschule, Munich (1912–14), where there was a large collection of mathematical models. During World War I he took refuge in Norway (1914–17) and started working with his ‘stereometric method’ of construction, one of several techniques he adopted from such models, and through which he made a significant contribution to the development of the language of ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Rosario.

Sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

Arte Concreto Invención Group.

Enio Iommi trained with his father, a sculptor and engraver of Italian origin. He was one of the founders of the Arte Concreto Invención group in Buenos Aires and in 1960...

Article

Nelly Perazzo

(b Rosario, March 20, 1926).

Argentine sculptor. His father was a sculptor, and Iommi studied in his father’s workshop and attended metalwork courses. He was a founder-member of the Asociación Arte Concreto Invención and is one of the most representative Constructivist sculptors in Argentina. In 1954 he created Continual Forms (white concrete, 2.0×0.8×1.2 m), a sculpture for a house in La Plata designed by Le Corbusier. His highly formal work was characterized at first by an economy of means, rigorous logic and dynamic rhythms and tensions, with an intelligible and rational structure of form that was optimistic in tone. It was with such works that he won a gold medal in Brussels at the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in 1958, took part in the exhibition Concret Art at the Kunsthaus, Zurich, in 1958, and participated hors concours in the São Paulo Biennale in 1961 and Venice Biennale in 1964.

Iommi completely changed direction in 1977...

Article

Jorge Glusberg

[Fallik, Fernando ]

(b Košice, Czechoslovakia [now Slovak Republic], 1924).

Argentine sculptor, theorist and poet of Slovak birth. A resident of Argentina from 1928, he studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes ‘Manuel Belgrano’ in Buenos Aires, and in 1944 he collaborated with Joaquín Torres García and the Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (1919–90) on the magazine Arturo (one issue only), which proposed geometric abstraction for the first time in Argentina. He was also a leading figure of Arte Madí, together with Carmelo Arden Quin (b 1913). During this period he produced his first articulated mobiles (e.g. Royi, 1944; see Glusberg, p. 73), which involved the active participation of the spectator, and early examples of sculptures made of neon (e.g. Madí Aluminium Structure No. 3, 1946;). Like his colleagues in Arte Madí, he proposed the radical autonomy of the art object, and in his later work he explored the possibilities of a diverse range of materials, including even water in his ...

Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Active in the United States from 1937.

Born 20 July 1895 , in Bácsbarsód or Bács-Borsód; died 24 November 1946 , in Chicago.

Painter (mixed media), collage artist, photomontage artist, sculptor, draughtsman, graphic designer, typographer, photographer (photogrammes), filmmaker. Stage sets.

Constructivism, Op Art, Kinetic Art Bauhaus...

Article

Terence A. Senter

(b Bácsborsod, Mohol Puszta, Hungary, July 20, 1895; d Chicago, Nov 24, 1946).

American painter, sculptor, photographer, designer, film maker, theorist, and teacher, of Hungarian birth. Moholy-Nagy’s importance in the 20th century is based as much on his theories as on his practical work. His ideologies related to the relationship between space, time, and light, and the interaction of man with these forces. His great achievement was that he applied his mystical outlook to highly practical enterprises and always recognized the purpose behind his creativity.

Moholy-Nagy’s ambition developed when he exchanged village life for the city of Szeged after his father left his family. Academically outstanding, Moholy-Nagy read law for a year at Budapest University before joining the artillery in World War I. Influential praise for his war sketches converted his aspiration from literature to art. His Expressionist style, social conscience, and investigation of light paralleled trends in the Hungarian avant-garde, from ...

Article

Elisabeth Roark

(Warren)

(b South Bend, IN, June 6, 1907; d St Paul, MN, July 17, 2002).

American sculptor. Brought up near Glasgow in Scotland, Rickey left in 1929 to study in Paris with Andre Lhote, Fernand Léger, and Amédée Ozenfant. He returned to the USA in 1934, taught at several colleges, was partly funded by the Works Progress Administration, and continued to paint. While working as an engineer in the army during World War II, Rickey had access to a machine shop and created his first sculpture: small mobiles reminiscent of Alexander Calder’s work. After exposure to Constructivist theories through lectures by Naum Gabo at the Institute of Design, Chicago, and an exhibition of works by Antoine Pevsner at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1948, he abandoned painting to focus on Kinetic art and became a pioneer of that movement. His early sculpture varied from whimsical, referential pieces like Cocktail Party (1954; New York, Mr and Mrs Stephen Kellen priv. col.), of painted mild steel and stainless steel, to more purely formal geometric work. Rickey’s mature style emerged between ...

Article

Holliday T. Day

(b Bronx, New York, May 11, 1912; d Aug 25, 1999).

American sculptor. He received a BA from New York City College in 1934, served in the US Navy between 1941 and 1945 and studied with the Cubist sculptor Ossip Zadkine in Paris in 1951–2. After travelling in Italy and Spain to look at Baroque architecture and sculpture, he returned to New York in 1955. In 1957 he joined the New Sculpture Group—an association dedicated to replacing reference to the human figure with a new internal logic—and the Brata Gallery, a 10th Street cooperative, which showed his work in 1957 and 1958 in group exhibitions. He showed mostly small-scale natural-coloured wood sculpture. His first polychromed sculpture was Yellow Top (1959; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.), which was c. 2 m high and made of laminated wood; it was considered extremely radical because each form was painted a different bright colour. The most ambitious sculpture of the 1960s was a 7.26 m long, 19-part indoor work, called ...

Article

British, 20th century, female.

Born 16 February 1936, in Ilford (Essex).

Painter, sculptor.

Constructivism.

Gillian Wise studied at Wimbledon School of Art from 1954 to 1957. She was interested in the writings of American 'constructivist' Charles Biederman, with whom she corresponded and who put her in touch with Anthony Hill and the constructivist group in England....