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Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Etrenne Lymbery

(b Paris, Feb 6, 1849; d Paris, 1931).

French writer. In 1866 he entered the Ministry for the Colonies, which he left in 1886 to devote himself to book collecting, building up a remarkable library of French prints. He was guided by the bibliophile Eugene Paillet, a greater part of whose library he purchased in 1887. Beraldi’s talent and well-developed critical sense were obvious, and he quickly established his reputation. He was the author of numerous works on artists and printmakers, such as L’Oeuvre de Moreau le Jeune (Paris, 1874), published under the pseudonym Draibel, the first catalogue of the works of Jean-Michel Moreau, Les Graveurs du XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1880–82) in collaboration with R. Portalis, and Mes Estampes (Lille, 1884), a catalogue of the prints, portraits and books belonging to him and to his father. He also compiled a catalogue of Paillet’s library, but his most famous book is the invaluable Les Graveurs du XIXe siècle...

Article

In the 20th century, discussion of the relationship between Byzantine art and the art of the Latin West evolved in tandem with scholarship on Byzantine art itself. Identified as the religious imagery and visual and material culture of the Greek Orthodox Empire based at Constantinople between ad 330 and 1453, studies of Byzantine art often encompassed Post-Byzantine art and that of culturally allied states such as Armenian Cilicia, Macedonia, and portions of Italy. As such fields as Palaiologan family manuscripts and wall paintings, Armenian manuscripts, and Crusader manuscripts and icons emerged, scholars identified new intersections between Western medieval and Byzantine art. Subtle comparisons emerged with the recognition that Byzantine art was not static but changed over time in style and meaning, although most analyses identified Byzantine art as an accessible reservoir of the naturalistic, classicizing styles of antiquity. Scholars considering the 7th-century frescoes at S Maria Antiqua and mosaics at S Maria in Cosmedin, both in Rome, and the 8th-century frescoes at Castelseprio and Carolingian manuscripts such as the Coronation Gospels of Charlemagne (Vienna, Schatzkam. SCHK XIII) used formal comparisons with works such as pre-iconoclastic icons at St Catherine’s Monastery on Sinai, along with the history of Byzantine iconoclasm, to argue for the presence of Greek painters in the West. Similarly, Ottonian and Romanesque painting and luxury arts, such as ivories, provided examples of the appropriation of Byzantine imperial imagery. Yet the study of works such as the great 12th-century ...

Article

Adam S. Cohen

Oldest extant complete Vulgate Bible (505×340 mm; Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. Amiatinus 1), produced in Monkwearmouth–Jarrow, Northumbria, around ad 700 at the behest of Abbot Ceolfrid. The Codex Amiatinus is notable for its immense dimensions and size; its 1030 folios likely required over 1500 calves to produce enough parchment. More remarkably, there were three such pandects (single-volume Bibles), one each for the monasteries at Monkwearmouth and Jarrow (only fragments survive), while the Codex Amiatinus was destined for the papacy in Rome (Ceolfrid died on the journey in 716). The script imitates Italian uncial and was based on an exemplar of the 6th century. Bede reports that Benedict Biscop, founder of the double monastery, and Ceolfrid travelled to Italy and returned with books; one was almost certainly Cassiodorus’s Codex Grandior, a 6th-century pandect from Vivarium, now lost. The relationship of the illustrations in the Codex Amiatinus to the Codex Grandior has long been debated. Some of the contents and certainly the style of illustration in the Codex Amiatinus, above all the portrait of ...

Article

Henry Adams

(b Veracruz, Mar 13, 1880; d Stamford, CT, Jan 10, 1961).

Mexican illustrator, writer, gallery owner, and publisher, active in the USA. He was the son of a wealthy Mexican lawyer and publisher. De Zayas started his career as an artist by providing drawings for his father’s newspaper in Veracruz. In 1906 he moved on to Mexico City’s leading newspaper, El Diario, but a year later, after the ascension of the dictator Porfirio Diaz, whom the newspaper had opposed, he fled to the USA. There he landed a position making caricatures for the New York Evening World. Shortly after his arrival in the USA, he came into contact with Alfred Stieglitz, who staged solo shows of De Zayas’s caricatures at his gallery Gallery 291 in 1909 and 1910, both of which proved to be huge popular successes.

In 1910 De Zayas traveled to Paris, where he stayed almost a year, scouting out adventurous forms of modern art for Stieglitz, notably the cubist work of Picasso and African sculpture. On his return, equipped with knowledge of European modern art and inspired by the work of the French modernist ...

Article

A. Deirdre Robson

(b Flint, MI, Nov 5, 1859; d Chicago, IL, July 21, 1920).

American critic, collector and lawyer. He wrote books on legal and economic issues in the 1900s. He first became interested in art, notably that of James Abbott McNeil Whistler and François-Auguste-René Rodin through the World’s Fair of Chicago in 1893. He began to lecture on art and aesthetics and published his first art book Delight, the Soul of Art (Philadelphia, 1904). In 1912 he became interested in 20th-century art. It was, however, the Armory Show (1913) that inspired him to become a serious collector of avant-garde art; he acquired 25 works from the exhibition. Subsequently he travelled to London and Germany, where he met Vasily Kandinsky and other artists and added c. 100 works to his collection.

In 1914 Eddy published Cubists and Post-Impressionism (Chicago). Based on information elicited from the artists themselves, this book is significant as one of the first attempts to explain modern art in the USA, but in its emphasis upon such painters as Kandinsky (it included the first discussion in English of this painter’s ideas) it betrays Eddy’s enthusiasm for colouristic abstraction. Eddy continued to collect, although the emphasis lay upon American modernism. On his death the collection was dispersed and 23 works went to the ...

Article

Barbara Lange

(b Oberfiesbach, Oberbayern, Jan 6, 1801; d Munich, Jan 20, 1866).

German art historian and bookseller. Through his marriage to Johanna Ehrenreich, a widow from Munich, he became a dealer in secondhand books and joint owner of her business. In 1829 he graduated as a doctor of philosophy from the Universität Erlangen. He began to write regular articles on art for the Bayerische Nationalzeitung. The material he collected while researching in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich and which he obtained from the books in his shop formed the basis of his Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon (1835–52). From 1857 to 1878 he published the five-volume Die Monogrammisten und diejenigen bekannten und unbekannten Künstler aller Schulen …, which he envisaged as a supplement to his dictionary of artists. By modern standards Die Monogrammisten appears to be partly speculative, especially in the way in which the monograms are deciphered. However, it represents an initial attempt to approach art in a modern systematic way. It was prompted by the recent opening of collections to the public and the growing interest in art history in the academic world. Alongside his work on the dictionary and his business as a bookseller, Nagler lectured twice a week from ...

Article

David Rodgers

(b Cambridge, 1580s; d London, 1650).

English calligrapher and miniature painter. He lost his father, Robert Norgate (d 1587), Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, when he was young; but his early promise as an artist persuaded his stepfather, Nicholas Felton (1556–1626), Bishop of Ely, to allow him to train in London, and there is evidence to suggest that he was acquainted with the studio of Nicholas Hilliard. In 1611 Norgate was granted the post of royal organ tuner; there is no record of his musical experience, but this post was probably not a sinecure, for he was an ingenious man, whose skill in a variety of arts is recorded by Robert Herrick (1591–1674) in his poem Hesperides (1648). In the following year Norgate was sent to the French court in Paris with letters from James I that were probably in Norgate’s own hand, for he already had a reputation as a limner and calligrapher....

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Tung Ch’i-ch’ang; zi Xuanzai; hao Sibo, Siweng, Xiangguang, Xiangguang jushi; Wenmin]

(b Shanghai, Feb 10, 1555; d Dec 1636).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector, and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from 1571 Dong resolved to study calligraphy in earnest. His initial models were rubbings of works by the Tang-period (618–907 ce) calligraphers Yan Zhenqing and Yu Shinan (558–638), but soon realizing the superior merits of the Six Dynasties (222–589 ce) calligraphers, he turned to the works of Zhong You (151–230 ce) and the great Wang Xizhi (see Wang family (i), (1)). After three years he was confident of having grasped their style, and no longer admired works by the Ming-period (...

Article

(b 1881; d Paris, Dec 26, 1942).

French epigraphist, bibliographer, papyrologist, art historian, collector and antiquarian. He is best known for several reference works on rare books and manuscripts, each of which can be described as a ‘census’ of the known copies of a given type of book. Among these are his Catalogue raisonné des premières impressions de Mayence, 1445–1467, Guide de l’amateur de livres à gravures du XVIIIe siècle and Census of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Fluent in several languages and known for his phenomenal memory, he was the greatest authority of his day on the provenance of rare books. He also worked in the field of Egyptian papyrology, studying works in North American and European collections, as well as in Egypt. He published bibliographies of Egyptology in the Revue Archéologique (1917, 1918), and in the Recueil Champollion (1922). De Ricci also prepared studies of various art collections, such as catalogues of the maiolica pottery and signed bookbindings in the ...

Article

Jeremy Howard

(Alekseyevich)

(b Nikolayevka, nr Putivl’, Kursk Prov. [now Ukraine], June 13, 1891; d Moscow, June 30, 1978).

. Russian art historian and collector. The foremost Soviet historian of graphic art and a specialist in modern Russian book design, he also studied Western European art from the Renaissance to the 20th century. He was an art history graduate of Moscow University, where he subsequently became a professor (1921), and his first book, indicative of his early interest in Symbolism, was an analysis of Aubrey Beardsley’s art and aesthetics, while his second, the first Soviet book on the subject, examined the relationship of the arts to revolution. Subsequently, as head of the engravings department of the Museum of Fine Arts (now the Pushkin Museum) in Moscow (1927–36) and as one of the founders of the conservative Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKhRR), Sidorov aligned himself with the right wing of Soviet cultural ideology. In this respect, despite his presiding concern with the synthetic qualities of word and image in book design, he frequently turned his attention to the social background of the creative work in question. The author of around 200 publications, Sidorov’s prolific output was extremely diverse; it includes a series of monographs on artists from Leonardo and Dürer to Käthe Kollwitz, Yelizaveta Kruglikova and Boris Korolyov, articles on Moscow art collections, modern dance and, most significantly, in-depth studies of the history of the Russian book. He was also a leading Soviet collector of graphic art, with almost 10,000 Russian, Soviet and Western European works, now in the ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...