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Article

Pascal Griener

(b Aix-en-Provence, June 21, 1752; d Bouleau, Seine-et-Marne, Feb 13, 1830).

French sculptor and writer. He worked for a goldsmith in Paris before devoting himself to sculpture, in which he was self-taught. Thanks to an allowance from an uncle who had adopted him, he was able to study sculpture in Italy in the early 1780s; there he struck up a friendship with Jacques-Louis David. On his return he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in Paris in 1788, and was received (reçu) as a member in the following year. On coming into a fortune, he returned in 1790 to Italy, where he lived until 1793, chiefly in Florence, Rome and Naples. He brought back with him what was the richest collection in France of plaster casts after antique sculpture, which he exhibited to the public at his house in the Place Vendôme, Paris. When, in 1796, Napoleon plundered some of the best-known antique sculptures of Rome, Giraud protested about their removal....

Article

Walter Geis

(b Andernach, April 15, 1823; d Cologne, Sept 13, 1888).

German sculptor, writer, designer, collector, dealer and furniture-restorer. From 1846 to 1871 he made gothicizing sculptures for Cologne Cathedral: for example figures of evangelists, martyrs and angels and figured reliefs (limestone; south transept, portals and buttresses). He also produced sculpture in period styles for castles, public buildings and private houses, for example 36 limestone statues of German emperors (1882–7; Aachen, Rathaus). The balanced form of his blocklike standing figures shows the influence of classical sculpture, and their generally pensive expression may be traced to the influence of the Lukasbrüder (see Nazarenes). With the help of costumes, Mohr adapted sculpted figures to the style of architecture, but in general his work after 1860 is characterized by massiveness, broad surfaces and an expression of pathos.

Mohr’s later work suggests an admiration for Michelangelo and for the monumental sculpture of Mohr’s contemporaries Ernst Rietschel and Johannes Schilling. The sculptures Mohr made between ...

Article

(b Paris, April 16, 1811; d Lucca, Jan 16, 1892).

French museum director, sculptor and collector. He was a member of a prominent Royalist family, and his military career ended with the abdication of Charles X in 1830. He studied sculpture under Carlo Marochetti and specialized in historical and contemporary portraiture, his best-known works being the bronze equestrian statue of William the Silent (1845) in front of the Paleis Noordeinde at The Hague, a bronze statue of René Descartes (exh. Salon 1846) in front of the Hôtel de Ville at La Haye-Descartes, Indre-et-Loire, and a bronze equestrian statue of Napoleon I (1854) at the Place d’Armes, La Roche-sur-Yon, Vendée. He exhibited at the Salon intermittently between 1842 and 1861.

A liaison with Princesse Mathilde Bonaparte advanced Nieuwerkerke’s career, and in 1848 he was appointed Directeur-Général des Musées by Louis-Napoléon (later Napoleon III). From 1851 he had apartments in the Louvre, where he held regular receptions attended by artists, politicians and aristocrats, some of whom are depicted in ...

Article

Sulejman Dashi

(Said)

(b Aka, Turkey, 1865; d Tiranë, Feb 11, 1918).

Albanian sculptor, collector and poet of Turkish birth. His family was in exile in Turkey, and he began his studies in the school of Madame Fyres (1878), finishing them in the Sultanie Lycée of Galatasaray in Istanbul (1894). Toptani’s artistic work is intrinsically linked to his efforts in the struggle for Albanian independence. Works such as the bust of ...