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Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Saïda, Algeria, 1953).

French painter, sculptor, photographer, film maker, writer and installation artist of Algerian birth. Born to Spanish parents, he was much affected by North African as well as Southern European culture. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre. Despite a pervasive and diverse use of media, Alberola often stressed the coexistence of his different artistic practices as leading to painting alone. His paintings relied heavily on evocative narratives, at once personal and ‘historical’. Alberola conceived of his role as a storyteller, on the model of African oral cultures. Convinced that narratives could not be renewed, he argued that a painter’s main task was to reactivate his work through contact with his pictorial heritage. The main points of reference for his paintings of the early 1980s were Velázquez, Manet or Matisse, whose works he quoted in a personal way. In the early 1980s he undertook a series of paintings inspired by mythological subjects, which he combined with his own history as the principal subject-matter of his work. The biblical story of Susannah and the Elders as well as the Greek myth of Actaeon provided his most enduring subjects, both referring to the act of looking as taboo, as in ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Ferrara.

Film maker, painter, writer. Landscapes.

An intuitive painter, Michelangelo Antonioni uses watercolour, oil and sometimes unexpected materials. He then makes photographic enlargements of his paintings and exhibits the enlargements. On several occasions he has taken his painter's brush to his films, colouring in natural settings artificially, notably in ...

Article

Peter Webb

(b Kattowitz, Germany [now Katowice, Poland], March 13, 1902; d Paris, Feb 24, 1975).

German photographer, sculptor, printmaker, painter, and writer. As a child he developed fear and hatred for his tyrannical father, who totally dominated his gentle and affectionate mother. He and his younger brother Fritz found refuge from this oppressive family atmosphere in a secret garden decorated with toys and souvenirs and visited by young girls who joined in sexual games. In 1923 Bellmer was sent by his father to study engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, but he became interested in politics, reading the works of Marx and Lenin and joining in discussions with artists of the Dada. He was especially close to George Grosz, who taught him drawing and perspective in 1924 and whose advice to be a savage critic of society led him to abandon his engineering studies in that year. Having shown artistic talent at an early age, he began designing advertisements as a commercial artist and illustrated various Dada novels, such as ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1902; died 1992.

Draughtsman, watercolourist, photographer, ethnologist. Costume studies.

Jean Besancenot is known for his classic work on the costumes of Morocco based on his research gathered between 1934 and 1939 and first published in 1942. The original edition includes around 60 costumes and headdresses in colour plates, executed by Besancenot himself. Earlier he had completed a study on some regional costumes of Europe. He is probably the same artist as Jean Besancenot-Girard....

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b London, June 24, 1920; d New York, Aug 21, 2003).

English photographer, painter, writer and curator. He took his first photographs in 1941, whilst serving in the King’s African Rifles in Ethiopia. On his return to London in 1946 he studied painting at various art schools, and had a first exhibition of his tachiste-influenced abstract paintings at the New Visions Centre Gallery, London, in 1957. Inspired by the exhibition The New American Painting (London, Tate, 1959), Coplans moved to the USA in 1960 and began teaching at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1962 he co-founded the periodical Artforum, to provide coverage of the growing West Coast art scene. He worked as Curator/Director of the Pasadena Art Museum (1967–70), where his shows included a travelling retrospective in 1967 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings and another of Andy Warhol’s work in 1970. In 1971 he settled in New York as the editor of Artforum, a position he held until ...

Article

Ewa Mikina

(b Radomsko, nr Częestochowa, April 24, 1921).

Polish photographer, writer and painter. He was self-taught as an artist. Just after World War II he founded and became one of the most active members of the avant-garde Club of Young Artists and Scientists (Klub Młodych Artystow i Naukowcow), Warsaw. Club activities, as well as his own ideas concerning possible union between the new, radical left-wing art and the political and social situation in the country, reached an impasse with the rise of Socialist Realism in 1949. He was the editor of the magazine Fotografia from 1953 to 1972 and a lecturer at the Film School, Łódź, from 1966 to 1975. From 1982 he lived in Paris.

In the 1940s Dłubak produced extreme close-up photographs with metaphoric titles. His ‘cool medium’ (deliberately banal) documentary works of the 1950s (e.g. the series Existences, 1955–66) clashed with official, optimistic, propaganda images. Later his work and his numerous theoretical writings were stimulated by studies in ...

Article

Nancy E. Green

(b Ipswich, MA, April 6, 1857; d New York, NY, Dec 13, 1922).

American painter, printmaker, photographer, writer and teacher. Dow took art classes in the Boston studio of James M. Stone, where he met Frank Duveneck, who would remain a lifelong friend. He went to Paris in 1884 to study at the Académie Julian with Jules(-Joseph) Lefebvre and Gustave(-Clarence-Rodolphe) Boulanger. Dow also took evening classes at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, where the American artist Francis D. Millet (1846–1912) offered critiques of the students’ work. Dow then spent some time in Pont-Aven, where he met Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard, and in Concarneau where he sought out the advice of American painter Alexander Harrison (1853–1930). Dow’s painting Au Soir won an honorable mention at the Universal Exposition in 1889 and two of his paintings were accepted that same year for the Paris Salon and were hung on the line (i.e. at eye-level).

Dow returned to Boston where he began independent studies at the Boston Public Library that led him to the work of Japanese artists ...

Article

Yasuyoshi Saito

[Sugita, Hideo]

(b Miyazaki Prefect., April 28, 1911; d Tokyo, March 10, 1960).

Japanese photographer, painter, printmaker and critic. In 1925 he entered the department of yōga (Western-style painting) at the Japanese School of Art in Tokyo. In 1926 he began writing art criticism and in 1927 he left the School, going on in 1930 to study at the School of Oriental Photography, Tokyo. In 1934 he returned to Miyazaki and studied Esperanto, going back two years later to Tokyo; thereafter he rejected his real name of Hideo Sugita in favour of his pseudonym, which was suggested by Saburō Hasegawa. His first exhibition, a one-man show of photograms (Tokyo, 1936), was based on drawings that used photographic paper. His collection of photograms, Nemuri no riyū, was also published in 1936. In 1937 he was a founder-member of the Jiyū Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Independent Art Society) and in Osaka, of the Demokurāto Bijutsuka Kyōkai (Democratic Art Society); from then on he produced etchings, also making lithographs from ...

Article

Fillia  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 3 October 1904, in Revello; died 9 February 1936, in Turin.

Painter, photomontage artist, writer, illustrator. Murals, ceramics.

Futurism.

Luigi Enrico Colombo took the pseudonym Fillia, which was his mother's maiden name. Although he died at the age of only 32, he was one of the most far-sighted thinkers to influence the evolution of artistic expression between the two World Wars. In fact, in the course of the many journeys he made right up to his death in Paris, he was in contact with the pioneers of abstract art, which was at that time ignored by everyone, and this was how he came to be linked with the leaders of the ...

Article

Amanda du Preez

Term used to indicate the complex visual matrix incorporating the one who looks as well as the one who is looked at. This means the one who imposes the gaze and the one who is the object of the gaze are both implicated in the construction of the gaze. The concept was addressed initially by Sigmund Freud’s concept of scopophilia (‘pleasure in looking’ or voyeurism) and later in Jacques Lacan’s formulation of the mirror stage and its role in identity formation. Lacan formulated the complex role of the gaze in constructing the relation between interior self and exterior world as two kinds of subjects—not only as a powerful subject gazing at the world but also as a lacking, objectified subject encountering the gaze outside himself. For the most part the link between the gaze and power is entrenched in theories on the gaze, since the directed gaze of the powerful subject has the ability to subjugate and even petrify its objects as exemplified in the terrifying gaze of Medusa in Greek mythology. The construction of the gaze happens within an asymmetry of power. In recent times, the gaze has become a trope within visual culture for the critical analysis of several entwined ideas concerning class, race, ethnography, sex, gender, religion, embodiment, ideology, power, and visuality. In this article the powerful directed gaze is analysed through the categories of the clinical gaze, colonial gaze, touristic gaze, and the male gaze. Finally, theorizing possibilities of going beyond the gaze are considered....

Article

Claudia Büttner

(b Aachen, Feb 22, 1914).

German painter, photographer, film maker, draughtsman, printmaker, writer and teacher. From 1932 to 1933 he attended the Webe- und Kunstgewerbeschule in Aachen. Inspired by Picasso, Gris, Klee and the Expressionists, Götz reduced the figures in his painting to minimal linear outlines from 1933, as a result of which he was prohibited from painting and exhibiting from 1935 to 1936. During his military service from 1936 to 1938 he experimented with spray painting, overpainted photograms (of his wife), photograms (produced by laying objects on photographic paper exposed to light) and abstract cine-films. In 1938 he settled in Wurzen, Saxony, and from 1938 to 1939 attended the Kunstakademie in Dresden where he began to concentrate on abstract works, using a mixture of organic and geometric elements. In 1940 he moved to Dresden, where his friends included Will Grohmann and Otto Dix. He served in the German army in Norway from 1941 to 1945...

Article

Timothy O. Benson

(b Vienna, July 12, 1886; d Limoges, Feb 1, 1971).

Austrian photomontagist, painter, photographer, printmaker, writer, and theorist. He trained in the academic artistic tradition under his father, Victor Hausmann (1859–1920). In 1900 he went to Berlin, where he later became a central figure in Dada. His important friendship with the eccentric architect and mystical artist Johannes Baader (1875–1956) began in 1905. In the first years of the next decade he was associated with such artists as Erich Heckel and Ludwig Meidner and produced numerous paintings, including Blue Nude (1916; Rochechouart, Mus. Dépt.), and woodcuts, several of which were published in his book Material der Malerei Plastik Architektur (Berlin, 1918). These works blended Expressionism with the influences of artists then exhibiting at Herwarth Walden’s Sturm-Galerie: Fernand Léger, Alexander Archipenko, Robert Delaunay and Sonia Delaunay, Arthur Segal, and others. Around 1915 his widening contacts with the writers Salomon Friedländer and Franz Jung led to innumerable theoretical and satirical writings that were published in ...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....

Article

New Zealand, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1948, in Auckland (New Zealand); died 2014, in London.

Painting, photography, writing.

Alexis Hunter was a painter, photographer, and author from New Zealand whose work was strongly influenced by feminist theory of the 1970s. Hunter focused on the portrayal of women in advertisements at the time and played a key role in the development of Conceptual, Feminist art in London.

After completing her studies in New Zealand, Hunter moved to London in 1972 where she joined the Artists Union Women’s Workshop alongside other feminist photographers and film makers such as Tina Keane, Annabel Nicolson, and Mary Kelly. Hunter’s aesthetic in her conceptual work was strongly influenced by storyboarding in advertising, photographic sequences, and filmic chronology.

The male body and masculine expressivity were reoccurring themes in Hunter’s work, often disrupting the portrayal of male identity at the time. Object Series (1974–1975) for instance places a shirtless man in front of the backdrop of the New York skyline, the Twin Towers strategically placed right above the man’s crotch. By turning her subjects into sex objects, Hunter inverts the male gaze that was so dominant in visual culture at the time. The photographic sequence ...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 31 January 1942, in Northwood (Middlesex); died 19 February 1994, in London.

Painter, filmmaker, designer, author, poet. Landscapes, townscapes. Designs for stage sets, films, gardens.

Derek Jarman studied English, History and Art History at King's College in London before going on to study fine art at the Slade School of Art in London (...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 19 August 1907, in Walberswick (Suffolk); died 24 September 1950, in Poros, Greece, as the result of an accident.

Painter (mixed media), filmmaker, theatre designer, photographer, poet.

English Surrealist Group.

Humphrey Jennings was a noted English filmmaker and photographer. He was active with the English Surrealists until ...

Article

Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...

Article

Canadian, 20th century, male.

Born 18 January 1926, in Moose Jaw (Saskatchewan), to parents of Japanese origin; died 8 January 1994, in Vancouver.

Painter, photographer, musician, poet, filmmaker.

Roy Kiyooka studied at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary. In 1955 he won a scholarship to the Instituto Allende in Mexico where he studied under James Pinto. From ...

Article

Elizabeth K. Valkenier

(Nikolayevich)

(b Novaya Sot, nr Ostrogozhsk, June 8, 1837; d St Petersburg, April 6, 1887).

Russian painter and theorist. Born to a lower-middle-class provincial family, he first worked as a copyist clerk, then as a retoucher with an itinerant photographer. From 1857 to 1863 he attended the Imperial Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, then taught for five years at the School of Drawing run by the Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. In November 1863, while still a student at the Academy, Kramskoy organized a protest against prescribed mythological themes in the competition for the final Gold Medal that carried a six-year stipend for study abroad. This brave gesture asserted the independence of Russian artists from the dictates of the Court and the state bureaucracy that controlled their work and livelihood. It also marked a decisive break with the Academy’s outdated form of Neo-classicism, patterned on Western models, which had lost popularity with the educated public but continued to be taught and favoured at the official level. After the break with the Academy, Kramskoy sustained a group of thirteen independent painters both organizationally and intellectually in keeping with the spirit of reform and renovation that swept Russia during the 1860s after the emancipation of the serfs. He set up a communal workshop (...