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Article

Elisabeth Landolt

Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484 he founded his own print shop and publishing house. He was in close contact with Albrecht Dürer during the latter’s stay in Basle (1491–2). Apart from works of art for personal use, for example ornamental daggers, he probably owned graphic and print blocks for woodcut illustrations by Dürer. Johannes’s son, Bonifacius Amerbach (b Basle, 11 Oct 1495; d Basle, 24 April 1562), a lawyer, professor at the University of Basle and syndic of the Basle council, was the heir and executor of Erasmus and owned paintings by the Holbein family and important gold and silver pieces, for example the well-known ‘...

Article

French, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active in Lyons between 1490 and 1510.

Engraver (wood), printer, print publisher.

Lyons School.

Article

Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...

Article

(b Bergamo, c. 1458; fl Venice, 1543).

Italian printer and publisher of books and prints. He settled in Venice c. 1480 and in 1483 was running a bookshop at the sign of St Jerome in the Merceria and published the Supplementum chronicarum of Jacobus Philippus Foresti (Bergomensis; 1434–1520). Between then and 1543, the year of the publication of Girolamo Savonarola’s Trattato dell’amor di Gesù, he published (alone or with other publishers) over 100 texts of Classical and contemporary authors, treatises on law and medicine, as well as several books of a religious nature, mostly in Latin. Among the most famous illustrated works are those of Dante Alighieri (1491) and Ovid (1493–4). After c. 1500 Benalio’s publishing activity declined (c. 40 post-1500 publications are known), perhaps pushed into second place by his new interest, the publication and marketing of prints. For this purpose he opened a branch at Padua, entrusting its management to a relative, ...

Article

(fl 1488; d Padua, Feb 1530).

Italian illuminator, printmaker and writer. He is first mentioned in Padua as an illuminator in 1488. He has been identified as the Benedetto Padovano who signed the Digestum novum (benedi[cti] patav[ini]) and the Decretals of Pope Gregory IX (be[nedicti] pa[tavini]), published by Jenson in Venice in 1477 and 1479 respectively (Gotha, Landesbib., Mon. Typ. 1477; Mon. Typ. 1479). Both incunabula were commissioned by the German book dealer Peter Ugelheimer, for whom Girolamo da Cremona also worked, probably shortly after 1483; the apparent dependence of Bordon’s style on Girolamo, particularly in his early works, may suggest that the Gotha incunabula were decorated after that date, during the years in which Bordon is documented in Padua. In the same period he probably also illuminated two folios (Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml., 40198 and 40140), a Book of Hours (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. 1970) and a Cistercian Breviary (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Canon. Lit. 343)....

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Kent, ?1427; d London, 1492).

English printer, publisher, translator, and merchant. In 1437–8 he entered the London Mercers’ Company, apprenticed to wool merchant Robert Large after whose death (1441) he moved to Bruges, where he established a position of considerable prestige in the English trading community; in 1462 he became governor of the settlement of English merchants in Bruges known as the English Nation and subsequently entered the service of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy. Several documents refer to Caxton’s diplomatic activities. In 1469 he began a translation of Raoul Le Fèvres’s Recueil des histoires de Troye, which he completed in 1471 in Cologne, where he also learnt the trade and art of printing; however, his first books were probably printed in Bruges, to which he returned probably in early 1473. On his return to England he set up the first printing press in the country in the precincts of Westminster Abbey. His earliest dated London work is an ecclesiastical indulgence dated ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Hammelburg, Franconia, c. 1460; d Basle, Oct 27, 1527).

German humanist printer. He moved to Basle in 1491 and trained as a printer and scholarly editor in the Amerbach family workshop. After the death of Johannes Amerbach in 1513, Froben established himself as an independent publisher with a particular interest in the printing of Biblical and patristic works (notably a nine-volume edition of St Jerome), and engaged Hans Holbein the younger (see Holbein family §(3)) and Urs Graf to design decorative initials and borders for his books; Holbein also painted his portrait (of which a copy is in Windsor Castle). Froben became a close friend of Desiderius Erasmus, who lived in Froben’s house, and was the publisher of Erasmus’s Greek New Testament (the first to be published). Froben also published tracts by Luther, but when Luther and Erasmus clashed over the doctrine of grace, Froben supported Erasmus. After Froben’s death the publishing house was managed by his descendants until ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).

German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Paris, 1480; d Paris, 1561).

French typefounder. Garamond worked as a typefounder for several Parisian printers and designed the roman typeface now known as typi regii and the Greek type (now known as grecs du roi) used by Robert Estienne in an edition of Eusebius (1544) commissioned by Valois, House of family §(14)...

Article

Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Forlì; fl c. Venice, 1480–1528).

Italian publisher, printer and woodcutter. He went to Venice c. 1480, where, with his brother Giovanni de’ Gregoriis, he set up a press that produced many of the most admired illustrated books of the time (e.g. Boccaccio’s Decameron, 1492; for illustration see Boccaccio, Giovanni). From 1505 to 1528 he ran the press on his own. In 1517 he published a five-block edition of Titian’s Triumph of Christ (e.g. Bassano del Grappa, Mus. Civ.; and see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 2) and two other woodcuts designed by Titian: the Virgin and Child with SS John the Baptist and Gregory the Great (see 1976–7 exh. cat., no. 13), which also bears the monogram of Lucantonio degli Uberti, and a Martyrdom of St Cecilia, which is signed and dated.

F. Mauroner: Le incisioni di Tiziano (Venice, 1943/R 1982)Tiziano e la silografia veneziana del cinquecento (exh. cat., ed. M. Muraro and ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Sommevoire, Marne, c. 1420; d Venice, after Sept 7, 1480).

French printer and publisher. Having served his apprenticeship at the Royal Mint in Paris, he was promoted to the position of Master of the Mint at Tours. He may have been sent to Mainz in 1458 by Charles VII, King of France, to learn printing. By 1470 he was an established publisher in Venice, producing four editions in that year including Cicero’s Epistolae ad atticum and Rhetorica novus et vetus. In 1471 he printed eighteen editions and in 1472 ten. In 1473 he formed an association with Jacques Le Rouge of Chablis, who started to print using Jenson’s type in late 1473. In 1474 he fought off strong German competition by entering into partnership with two German entrepreneurs, Johannes Rauchfas and Peter Ugelheimer, both of Frankfurt am Main. They formed the company ‘Nicolaus Jenson et socii’, which probably lasted until 1480. Of the 98 books attributed to Jenson, 29 are religious, 24 are Classical texts and at least 10 are on medical subjects. He achieved a pre-eminent position in Venetian publishing. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Köburger]

(b Nuremberg, fl 1472; d Nuremberg, Oct 3, 1513).

German publisher. Koberger introduced printing to Nuremberg in 1470 and sold his books through his 16 shops and his network of agents throughout Europe. He published more than 200 folio incunabula, many of which were lavishly illustrated with woodcuts, including Hartmann Schedel’s Nuremberg Chronicle. On his death the business passed to his heirs who went bankrupt in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1425–67).

German manuscript illuminator. Lauber had a workshop in Hagenau (now French Haguenau) in Alsace, 15 km north-east of Strasbourg. His workshop is known to have produced more than 50 manuscripts (in both German and Latin) between 1425 and 1467.

NDB

L. von Wilckens: ‘A Note on an Embroidery with the Joys of Mary’ [15th century linen embroidery from Alsace], ...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Bassiano, ?1450; d Venice, Feb 6, 1515).

Italian printer, publisher, teacher and translator. He studied in Rome and Ferrara and spent some time in Mirandola with Giovanni Pico (1463–94). In 1483 he was tutor to the Pio family. He formed a project to publish Greek texts and in 1489–90 moved to Venice, where soon afterwards he published the Musarum panegyris (1491). His Greek publications formed the core of his activities: he issued c. 30 first editions of literary and philosophical Greek texts including a five-volume Aristotle (1495–8). The first book printed with his own newly cut Greek type was the Erotemata (1495) by Constantine Lascaris (1434–?1501). Three further Aldine Greek types were developed, the last in 1502.

Manutius established a pre-eminent position in Venetian publishing and in 1495 entered into a formal partnership with Andrea Torresani, his future father-in-law, and Pierfrancesco Barbarigo. His total output has been estimated at 120,000 or more copies. One of his most significant innovations was the production of small-format editions of Classical texts, starting with those of Virgil in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Numeister]

(b c. 1430–40; d 1512).

German printer. Neumeister may have been a pupil of Johann Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy (1472; see Dante Alighieri). He subsequently worked in Mainz (1479) and then moved to France, first living in Albi, north-east of Toulouse (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Normandy c. 1449; d London 1529/30).

Anglo-Norman printer. Pynson became a printer in London, initially as an assistant to William Caxton. In the early 1490s he succeeded William de Machlinia as the principal printer of law books in London; his press also printed an illustrated edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. On the accession of King Henry VIII in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, 1527–8).

German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of Johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt’s many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated with diagrams and the first books with illustrations in three colours. He first printed music in ...

Article

(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...

Article

Mendel Metzger

Family of Jewish printers, active in Italy, Turkey and Egypt. They originated in Germany but emigrated to Lombardy and settled in Soncino near Crema in 1454, taking the name of the town as their patronymic. Their first printing press was set up in Soncino by Yoshua (d 1493) and Moses (d 1489), sons of Israel Nathan (d 1492?), a physician. The family was active between 1483, the date of Yoshua’s first book, and 1562, when the 184th and last publication was printed by his great-great-nephew in Cairo. Seven family members were printers: Yoshua, his brother Moses, Moses’s sons Solomon and Gershom [Hieronymus Soncinus] (d 1534), Gershom’s children Moses and Eliezer (d 1547) and Eliezer’s son Gershom (d 1562). Yoshua published only Hebrew books (42 editions, all incunabula) during his short career (1483–9 in Soncino, 1489–92 in Naples). Gershom’s career, however, was one of the longest (...

Article

Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....