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German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. One of the foremost painters of the circle gathered at the Prague court of Emperor Rudolf II (see Habsburg, House of family, §I, (10)), he synthesized Italian and Netherlandish influences in his portraits and erudite allegories....

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Italian patron. He was the son of Giulio, Duca d’Atri (d 1481), and Caterina Orsini, Contessa di Conversano (Apulia), a cousin of Queen Isabella of Castile; in 1477 he married Isabella Piccolomini of Aragon (d 1504). His extensive territories included much of the Abruzzo and Apulia, and through his second marriage to Caterina della Ratta, Contessa di Caserta, he gained lands in Campania, Lucania and Calabria. Andrea Matteo led a tumultuous political and military career, alternately supporting the Aragonese and the Angevins and losing and regaining his lands several times. From ...

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Claire Baines

Italian historian, topographer, writer and patron. He was a friar and first entered the Dominican Order at Forlì but was in Bologna from 1495 and was officially transferred to the monastery there in 1500. Alberti received an extensive grounding in humanist studies under the Bolognese rhetorician ...

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Portuguese bishop and patron. He was the son of Lopo de Almeida, the 1st Conde de Abrantes (d 1508), and brother of Francisco de Almeida (1450–1510), the first viceroy of India. Jorge de Almeida was closely connected with the royal court of Portugal and in ...

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Joseph Connors

Italian family of patrons, of German origin. The Hohenems family from Salzburg Italianized their name when Cardinal Marcus Sitticus Altemps (1533–95) brought the dynasty to Rome. A soldier by training, he pursued an ecclesiastical career under the patronage of his uncle, Pope Pius IV (...

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Clare Robertson

Italian banker and patron. He was born of a noble Florentine family. At the age of 16 he inherited the family bank in Rome and, after the closure in 1528 of the rival bank founded by Agostino Chigi, became the most important papal financier in the city. Despite his position as Florentine consul in Rome, he was vigorously opposed to the Medici regime and his residence near the Ponte Sant’Angelo became the gathering place of many Florentine exiles. This palazzo was restored by Altoviti in ...

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Elisabeth Landolt

Swiss family of collectors of German origin. Johannes Amerbach (b ?Amorbach, c. 1450; d Basle, Dec 25, 1513) gained his MA at the Sorbonne, Paris, and trained as a printer in Nuremberg and Venice. In 1482 he settled in Basle, where in 1484...

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Donatella L. Sparti

Italian writer, historian and collector. He produced about 38 novels and several comedies, although his literary works have been little studied. In Perugia he was a member of the Accademia degli Insensati, under the name Tenebroso. He is documented as having been in Rome in the late 16th century as secretary to Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini (later Pope Clement VIII) and chief Apostolic Notary. At his home on the Pincio hill he accumulated a substantial collection, containing scientific instruments, examples of flora and fauna, a picture gallery, a large collection of ...

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Michel Hochmann

Italian family of patrons. Probably from Brussels originally, the d’Anna family were wealthy merchants who settled in Venice at the beginning of the 16th century. Martin [Martino] d’Anna (b ?1475; d Venice, 11 Nov 1556) acquired Venetian citizenship in 1545. He bought a palace on the Grand Canal from ...

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Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476...

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Norman E. Land

Italian art critic, writer, poet and collector. He was one of the most engaging literary figures of the Italian Renaissance, known not only for his famous Lettere but also for political lampoons, erotic books and religious writings. He was the son of a shoemaker, Luca del Tura. From before ...

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Natividad Sánchez Esteban

Spanish soldier, writer and collector. As a reward for his military achievements, Philip II appointed him Alférez Mayor of Andalusia, and he also received honours from the kings of France, Portugal and Poland. He became royal chronicler, which gave him access to numerous libraries throughout Spain, in which he discovered rare Spanish books dating from the Middle Ages. These were important for his ...

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Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

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Christopher F. Black

Italian family of patrons. The Baglioni are notorious in Renaissance historiography for their often violent attempts to dominate Perugia. The family network, which numbered 28 separate households in 1511, provided political strength until in-fighting brought destruction. Military and political service to the papacy secured the family feudal tenure or governorships of lesser Umbrian towns, such as Bettona, Spello and Torgiano, where they constructed palaces. Besides helping to promote major civic projects in Perugia, such as the cathedral of S Lorenzo (1440s) and the Collegio del Cambio (...

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Balbi  

Lorenza Rossi

Italian family of patrons and collectors. Their residence in the Piazza del Guastato, Genoa, is documented from 1547. With the collaboration of the Genoese comune they made the road (originally the Strada Nuovissima, now the Via Balbi) linking the Piazza del Guastato with the Porta di S Tomaso and were responsible for commissioning many buildings along it. ...

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John Law

Italian family of statesmen and patrons. The early history of the Barbarigo is obscure, although it is possible that they emigrated from the Trieste region and settled in Venice in the 8th or 9th century ad. The growth of their prominence is indicated by their entry into the hereditary nobility from the 13th century. One of the several branches of the clan was established in the Venetian colony of Crete in the 14th century. Members of the clan followed various careers and enjoyed differing degrees of wealth and political standing; one of the better documented is ...

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Deborah Howard

Italian family of patrons. They were endowed with intelligence and artistic gifts, as well as wealth and influence, and they included some of the most eminent humanist scholars of the 15th century, including Francesco di Candiano Barbaro (c. 1395–1454), a Latin and Greek scholar, and ...

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Donata Battilotti

Italian diplomat and writer. He attended the school of the peripatetic philosopher Francesco Verini in Florence and later entered the Church. In 1530 he went to Rome where he studied architecture and drawing as well as mathematics, music and humanistic disciplines.

Bartoli was a man of great culture and wide interests. His particular interest in promoting Italian as a language of technical discourse found expression in translations of and commentaries on a number of important Latin texts, including ...

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Clare Robertson

Italian ecclesiastic, writer, collector and patron. His literary fame rests chiefly on his contributions to the development of Italian vernacular literature and to his revival of the Petrarchan style in poetry. Among his best-known works is Gli Asolani (written c. 1497; pubd 1505), which consists of Platonic dialogues on love. Born of a patrician family, he made several attempts to follow his father’s distinguished political career before deciding to devote himself to literature. In ...

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Linda S. Klinger

Italian jurist, collector and patron. He was the son of Giampietro Benavides, a famous physician, and studied law at the University in Padua, where he later taught for much of his life. Benavides was among a group of patrons who promoted a self–consciously Romanizing style in Padua during the 1540s. As governor of the city’s Arca del Santo, he was able to assist such promising artists as ...