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Article

Shannen Hill

Apartheid, an Afrikaans word meaning ‘separateness’, was a system of racial segregation in South Africa that curtailed the economic, political, and social rights of black, coloured, and Indian people. Enforced through the legislation of the National Party, apartheid was the rule of the land between 1948 and 1994. Apartheid affected art and art-making in three primary areas: expressions of nationalism; limited access to education and commercial art markets for black, coloured, and Indian artists; and articulations of political resistance to this system of governance.

Although apartheid is equated with the 20th century, its notions of segregation predate this period. As descendants of Dutch settlers who first settled in southern Africa in 1651, Afrikaners were long at odds with people indigenous to this region and with British and German imperialists who sought to colonize it in the 19th century. In Afrikaner lore, the Great Trek (1835–52) represents the spirit of struggle to claim a land in the name of God. The pilgrimage was driven by a desire both to civilize a so-called heathen place through the introduction of Christianity and to establish a republic free of English intrusion in the heartland. This spirit is embodied by Pioneers (...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b March 2, 1917).

English architect and writer, active in India . He graduated from the School of Architecture, Birmingham, and after serving as an anaesthetist in South-east Asia in World War II, he settled in India in 1945, first working as an architect/builder for a missionary organization in Pithorgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and from 1963 in Trivandrum, Kerala State. Inspired by the vernacular building of the area, he developed an architecture based only on local materials and stressing low-cost design. Other important influences were his Quaker religious beliefs, the philosophy of his friend Mahatma Gandhi, and his opposition to the architecture of Le Corbusier and the International style. Working as designer, builder and contractor, Baker has executed nearly 1000 works, mainly houses. Improvisation, for example using old building elements in new structures as in the Narayan House (1973), Trivandrum, is a characteristic of his approach. His house for T. N. Krishanan (1971...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b 1872; d Srinagar, 1955).

English art historian, museum curator, educationalist, painter and collector. In 1899, after a short period of training as an archaeologist in Egypt, Brown went to India, where he served as curator of Lahore Museum and principal of the Mayo School of Art, Lahore. While working in these posts, he was also assistant director of the Delhi Exhibition of 1902–3 (see Delhi, §II), under George Watt. In 1909 he took up employment in Calcutta as principal of the Government School of Art and curator of the art section of the Indian Museum. In 1927 he retired from the Indian Educational Service to take up an appointment as secretary and curator of the Victoria Memorial Hall in Calcutta, where he remained until 1947. After this he lived on a houseboat on the Dal Lake in Srinagar, Kashmir.

Brown’s earliest publications included a contribution to the catalogue of the Delhi Exhibition and a descriptive guide to the Department of Industrial Art at Lahore Museum in ...

Article

E. Errington

(b London, Jan 23, 1814; d London, Nov 28, 1893).

British archaeologist, numismatist and engineer. He obtained an Indian cadetship in 1828 through the patronage of Sir Walter Scott and received his commission as Second Lieutenant, Bengal Engineers, in 1831. After training at Addiscombe and Chatham, he was sent to India in 1833. Friendship with James Prinsep encouraged an immediate interest in Indian antiquities and led to his excavation of the Sarnath stupa (1835–6). After three years with the Sappers at Calcutta, Delhi and Benares (Varanasi), he was appointed an aide-de-camp (1836–40) to Lord Auckland. A geographical mission (July–September 1839) to trace the sources of the Punjab rivers in Kashmir provided access to the antiquities of the region. While Executive Engineer to Muhammad ‛Ali Shah, the ruler of Avadh (1840–42), he discovered the Buddhist site of Sankasya (Sankisa).

As a field engineer, he saw action during the Bundelkund rebellion (1842), at Punniar (...

Article

Philip Davies

(b Jan 14, 1841; d Weybridge, Dec 4, 1917).

English engineer, architect and writer, active in India. He was educated at Cheam and then at the East India Company Military College at Addiscombe where he was one of the last batch of graduates. He entered the Bombay Artillery in 1858, qualifying five years later as a surveyor and engineer. After initial service in the Public Works Department, and a brief spell with the Aden Field Force in 1865–6, he was appointed Chief Engineer to Jaipur state where he spent his entire working life.

An extremely prolific engineer and architect, he was responsible for a large number of important irrigation schemes but was also a pioneer and one of the most accomplished exponents of eclectic ‘Indo-Saracenic’ architecture. His Jeypore Portfolio of Architectural Details (1890), published for the Maharajah, is a vast, scholarly compendium of architectural details of north Indian buildings that became a recognized pattern book and standard reference work. His principal works include the Anglican church (...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Bangkok, March 30, 1939).

Thai architect, theoretician and writer. He studied at the University of Cambridge (MA and DipArch, 1963), receiving a number of student awards including the Brancusi Travelling Fund, Breezewood Foundation Scholarship and John D. Rockefeller Fund scholarship. He also received a PhD in architectural studies from Cambridge in 1967. From 1965 to 1969 he worked as an architect for the Thailand Department of Town and Country Planning in Bangkok, and in 1969 he went into private practice there. One of the most intellectual architects in South-east Asia, Jumsai was influenced by Le Corbusier, Colin Rowe and Buckminster Fuller, and he applied contemporary European forms and technical innovations to buildings designed within the Thai context. Between 1969 and 1982, when this modernist expression was prevalent, his office, SJA 3D Co. Ltd, was responsible for over one hundred design and planning projects ranging from residences to office buildings, industrial plants and economic feasibility studies. During this period 62 factories were designed and built, the largest being the Nissan Car Assembly Plant (...

Article

(b Paris, Jan 3, 1870; d Phnom Penh, Feb 22, 1949).

French architect, art historian and archaeologist. Born into a family of artists, he attended the Lycée de Reims, where he was taught drawing by his father, and in 1891 entered the architectural faculty of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. In 1896 he was employed by the Public Works Office in Tunis, where he learnt about archaeology and published a plan and reconstruction of a temple at nearby Carthage. In 1900 he joined the Mission Archéologique d’Indochine (later known as the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient) to document Siamese historical monuments. His early career was dominated by the discovery, exploration and study of the monuments of the Champa. During 1902–4 he excavated a Buddhist monastery at Dong Duong, a complex of temples at Mi Son and an important temple at Chanh Lo. When he returned on leave to Paris, he married the writer and poet Jeanne Leuba, who took an active part in his later fieldwork, often undertaken in hazardous circumstances at inaccessible sites. He was appointed head of the archaeological service of the Ecole Française d’Extrême-Orient in ...

Article

E. Errington

(b Thoby Priory, Essex, Aug 20, 1799; d London, Apr 22, 1840).

English scholar, architect and assayer. He was one of eight brothers (including artists William (1794–1874) and Thomas (1800–30)), several of whom gained prominence in India. James Prinsep began training under the architect A. C. Pugin (see Pugin family §(1)), but eye problems prompted a change to assaying. On arrival in India in September 1819 he was appointed assistant assay-master to Horace Hayman Wilson at the East India Company’s Calcutta Mint. In 1820 he became assay-master of the Benares (now Varanasi) Mint for ten years. During this time he established a literary institution, served on a committee for municipal improvements, restored the mosque of the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb (d 1767), was the architect of a new mint and church for the city and built a bridge over the Karamnasa River. He also completed a series of sketches of Benares that were reproduced as lithographs by ...

Article

Peter A. Nagy

Indian new media artists and theorists . Raqs Media Collective was formed in 1991 by New Delhi artists, Jeebesh Bagchi (b 6 July 1965), Monica Narula (b 13 June 1969) and Shuddhabrata Sengupta (b 12 Feb 1968), who met when they were studying for their masters’ degrees in mass communication at Jamia Milia University, New Delhi. The collective have explained the significance of their name in stating that:

Raqs is a word in Persian, Arabic and Urdu that means the state that whirling dervishes enter into when they whirl. It is also a word used for dance. At the same time, Raqs could be an acronym, standing for “rarely asked questions.”

Their practice incorporates new media, digital art, documentary filmmaking, photography, media theory and research, writing, criticism and curation ( see fig. ).

In 2002 they shot onto the international art world stage by being included in ...

Article

Noémie Goldman and Kim Oosterlinck

Term for the return of lost or looted cultural objects to their country of origin, former owners, or their heirs. The loss of the object may happen in a variety of contexts (armed conflicts, war, colonialism, imperialism, or genocide), and the nature of the looted cultural objects may also vary, ranging from artworks, such as paintings and sculptures, to human remains, books, manuscripts, and religious artefacts. An essential part of the process of restitution is the seemingly unavoidable conflict around the transfer of the objects in question from the current to the former owners. Ownership disputes of this nature raise legal, ethical, and diplomatic issues. The heightened tensions in the process arise because the looting of cultural objects challenges, if not breaks down, relationships between peoples, territories, cultures, and heritages.

The history of plundering and art imperialism may be traced back to ancient times. Looting has been documented in many instances from the sack by the Romans of the Etruscan city of Veii in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Overbrook, PA, Dec 2, 1904; d Cambridge, MA, Oct 3, 1972).

American art historian and watercolourist. He was educated at St Paul’s School, Concord, NH, from 1918 to 1924 and received his Bachelor of Science degree from Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1928. In 1930 he submitted at Harvard University his PhD thesis on Jaume Huguet and 15th-century painting in Catalonia, which was published in 1932. From 1930 until his death, Rowland continued to be based at Harvard, as a tutor from 1930 to 1941 and as an associate professor from 1941 to 1950. He served during World War II as a lieutenant commander in the US Naval Reserve. In 1950 he was appointed full professor and in 1960 became the Gleason Professor of Fine Arts. He also acted as a curator at the university’s Fogg Art Museum. In 1970 he served as the US delegate at the UNESCO Kushan Congress at Kabul. His paintings were exhibited in the 1940s and 1950s at galleries in Boston and Washington, and examples are to be found in the permanent collections of the Fogg Art Museum; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA; the Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI; and the Art Museum, St Louis, MO. In ...

Article

Anis Farooqi

(b Simla, June 21, 1928; d April 25, 1994).

Indian painter and writer. After failing his examination as a pre-medical student at Delhi University in 1943, he went to Calcutta for 18 months and then returned to Delhi, where he worked for the Congress Socialist Party. In 1947 he joined the Communist Party but resigned in 1953. He supported himself by writing and translation work, and also painted. In 1958 he won a scholarship to study graphics at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw but returned to Delhi after six months and worked with the artist Sailoz Mookherjea (1908–60). From 1958 to 1962 he also worked on the weekly magazine Link, writing a regular political column and acting as its art critic. In 1963 he launched the exhibition of Group 1890 in the Rabindra Bhavan Art Gallery, New Delhi, that established the reputation of the group. In 1966 he was the founder–editor of the art bulletin ...