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Article

Flemish, 16th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam in 1553.

Died 1575.

Painter, draughtsman. Architectural views, church interiors.

Flemish School.

Hendrick Aerts painted and decorated church interiors, one of which was engraved by J. Londerseel.

London, 1 Dec 1978: Interior of an Imaginary Cathedral during a Procession...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active from 1511 to 1540.

Born in Sassoferrato (Ancona); died, in Cupramontana (Ancona).

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Many of Pietro Paolo Agabiti's paintings decorate the churches of his native town. Santa Maria del Piano has a Virgin with St Catherine and St John the Baptist...

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 1418, in Florence; died before 1498, in Perugia.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects.

Florentine School, Perugian School.

The son of the weaver Antonio di Duccio, Agostino d'Antonio di Duccio produced works in marble and terracotta of the Della Robbia type. His earliest known works are four low reliefs in Modena Cathedral. While living in Florence in ...

Article

Italian, 13th century, male.

Active in Modena.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

The son of Anselme and the nephew of Arrigo, Alberto da Campione was employed as an architect in the building of Modena Cathedral until after 1244.

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1502, in Paderborn (Westphalia); died c. 1558, in Soest.

Painter, designer of ornamental architectural features, engraver. Religious subjects, portraits.

Some biographers cite Heinrich Aldegrever's birthplace as the town of Paderborn, Germany, where his parents lived, while others claim it as Soest. He certainly lived in Soest after having completed his studies. In his study of the 'Little Masters' (so called because they engraved mostly small plates), Albert Rosemberg disputes that he studied under Dürer. Rosemburg even claims that he had never been to Nuremberg, despite van Melder's confirmation that Aldegrever worked at the high altar of a church in the town. It is indisputable, however, that Dürer strongly influenced him. Other artists who influenced him are Barthel Beham and Georg Pencz....

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1480, in Altdorf, in Regensburg according to some sources; died 1538, in Regensburg.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, hunting scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Danube School.

Albrecht Altdorfer could be considered as important an artist as Dürer. He probably acquired basic artistic skills while working with his father Ulbrich, who is known to have became a burgher of Regensburg in 1478. Albrecht is also believed to have studied the art of miniature painting. Almost all of his artistic activity took place in Regensburg where he worked from 1508 in various official capacities, playing an active role in the public life of the town. In 1526 he was nominated as the town's architect and directed building works on the ramparts and slaughterhouses. He also became a member of the town council....

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1434, probably in Padua; died c. 1496, probably in Padua.

Sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, animals. Low reliefs, church decoration, funerary monuments.

Venetian School, Paduan School.

Bellano is said to have studied under Donatello, in Padua, and followed his master to Florence in ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1550, in Antwerp or in Breda; died 1584, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman. Religious subjects, hunting scenes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Frescoes.

This artist was probably the son of Mattheus Bril the Elder and the older brother of Paul Bril. He must have been very young when he went to Italy, since there is no trace of his name in Antwerp or any other town in the Netherlands. Bril appears to have gained a considerable reputation in Italy, and is cited as the painter of several frescoes in the Vatican, where he was commissioned to decorate two rooms. For the Sala del Consistorio he painted four pictures of ...

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born shortly before 1536, in Cremona; died c. 1591.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits.

Antonio Campi was the son of Galeazzo and brother of Giulio and Vincenzo Campi. He worked first with his father and later at the studio of his brother Giulio. Before moving to Milan in 1561 he had worked in many different towns, notably Piacenza, Lodi, Brescia, Mantua, Cremona and Rome....

Article

Alison Manges Nogueira

Monumental, marble paschal Candlestick of the late 12th to early 13th century with reliefs signed by Nicolaus de Angelo and Vassallettus now in S Paolo fuori le Mura, Rome. The imposing column (h. 5.6 m), adorned with six registers of reliefs and surmounted by a fluted candle holder, rests upon a base of sculpted lions, sphinxes, rams and female figures. The upper and lower reliefs bear vegetal and ornamental patterns while the three central registers portray Christ before Caiaphas, the Mocking of Christ, Christ before Pilate, Pilate Washing his Hands, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension. The culminating Easter scenes reflect the paschal candle’s function during the Easter season as a symbol of Christ resurrected, as evoked in an inscription on the base. A second fragmentary inscription refers to the unidentifiable patron’s desire for commemoration. A third inscription identifies Nicolaus de Angelo as the master sculptor and Petrus Vassallettus as playing a secondary role. Both were active in the second half of the 12th to the early 13th century and came from leading families of Roman sculptors: the Vassalletti and Cosmati (Nicolaus’s family). The candlestick is the only work signed by and securely attributed to Nicolaus and the scope of his contribution remains uncertain. A plausible theory attributes the base and first register to Petrus, based upon similarities to works signed by him and ascribed to his family, such as the cloister of S Giovanni in Laterano in Rome and the narthex of S Lorenzo fuori le Mura in Rome. Nicolaus probably executed the Christological scenes, distinguishable for their more dynamic, expressive figures and decorative chisel work, and appropriate for the master sculptor because of their centrality and significance. Early Christian sarcophagi and Carolingian ivories may have provided models for the figural types. This form of paschal candlestick was probably inspired by Roman columnar monuments carved with triumphal scenes....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Active also active in Poland.

Born c. 1500, probably in Verona; died 1570, near Parma.

Engraver, goldsmith, medallist, architect. Religious subjects.

Giovanni Caraglio was one of the greatest engravers of his period and enjoyed a considerable reputation in Italy and abroad, particularly in Poland where he created medals for King Sigismond. When he returned to Italy he settled first in Verona and later near Parma, where he remained until his death....

Article

Delia Kottmann

Italian village in Lazio, north of Rome, known for its church. The church of SS Anastasius and Nonnosus is all that remains of the 6th-century Benedictine monastery, which submitted to Cluny in ad 940. Apart from some re-used fragments, the architecture is Romanesque, with a Cosmati pavement in opus sectile as well as an ambo and ciborium. The church is famous for its wall paintings from the first quarter of the 12th century. The apse and its adjacent walls, showing the 24 elders, are influenced by Romano–Christian motifs. Christ in the middle of the conch is flanked by Peter and Paul in a Traditio legis depiction, with a procession of lambs below. Underneath, Maria Regina has to be reconstructed in the middle, between two conserved angels followed by female saints in a Byzantine manner. No Romano–Christian iconography seems to have influenced the vast apocalyptic cycle painted on the side walls of the transept. A band of prophets runs beneath the roof on all the walls of the transept. An inscription in the apse indicates three Roman painters....

Article

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1509, in Gandino near Bergamo; died 1579, in Madrid, in 1569 according to the Larousse Dictionary.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including wash), architect, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Wall decorations, frescoes.

After a study trip to Rome, paid for by his protector Tobia Pallavicini, Giovanni Battista Castello (Il Bergamasco) produced a series of works in Genoa and Bergamo. His best-known works in Bergamo include the fresco ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Spanish, 16th century, male.

Born 1538, in Cordova; died 28 July 1608, in Cordova.

Painter, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, portraits.

School of Cordova.

Pablo de Céspedes initially studied theology, then Oriental languages. He began painting during a trip to Rome, under the direction of one of Michelangelo's pupils. While he was in Rome he painted a number of frescoes in various chapels, which were so successful that he was nicknamed the 'Spanish Raphael'. He was offered a canonicate in his home town and returned to Cordova in 1575 or 1577, before settling there permanently after a second trip to Rome in 1583. It was there that he painted his ...

Article

Cimabue  

Italian, 13th century, male.

Born between 1240 and 1250, in Florence; died 1302, in Pisa.

Painter, fresco artist, architect. Religious subjects.

Tuscan School, Florentine School.

We can only take Vasari's word for it that Cimabue was born in 1240, but the date seems plausible. He is known to have been in Rome in ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1525, in Antwerp; died 1589.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman. Religious subjects, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views, seascapes.

Antwerp School.

He was a pupil of his father, Willem, and of Frans Floris. He went to Italy to work from nature, and when he returned to Antwerp in 1551, became a Master of the Guild. He married in Antwerp on 2 July 1555 and had two sons who were both painters, Gillis and Hans. He painted the landscapes of paintings by Frans Floris and by his brother, Marten....

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Born 1507, in Antwerp, in 1527 according to some sources; died 1557, in 1581 according to some sources.

Draughtsman, engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious subjects, genre scenes, scenes with figures, rustic scenes, local scenes (kermesses).

Antwerp School.

He was the brother of Hendrick van Cleve III. A pupil of his father, Willem, and Frans Floris, he became a Master of the Antwerp Guild in ...

Article

L. A. S. Butler

(b ?1080–90; d Clairvaux, 1140).

French monk and architect. His reputation as an architect rests on three contemporary records. They show him to be a senior and trusted member of the Clairvaux community of Cistercian monks who had been at the abbey since its early days (see Clairvaux Abbey). In his role as a companion of St Bernard he was given responsibility for assisting new houses to establish themselves in the Cistercian way of life (see Bernard of Clairvaux). The clearest information comes from Fountains Abbey, N. Yorks, to which Geoffroi was sent in 1133 to instruct the monks (none of whom had spent any time within a Cistercian house) in the customs of the Order, its way of life, and disciplined attitude to monastic affairs. Serlo, then of Fountains, stated that Geoffroi had performed this task on many occasions: ‘he was skilled in ordering and establishing new houses’ (see Walbran). Part of these duties included the physical aspects of laying out the buildings, deciding on their disposition, and determining their dimensions, whether in timber as at Fountains or in stone as at Clairvaux. The confidence that Bernard placed in Geoffroi is indicated in his letter to Abbot Richard: ‘All the matters I have no time to write about I leave to Geoffroi; he will deal verbally with the rest’. When the instruction at Fountains was completed, Geoffroi left behind him a group of monks well able to continue the Cistercian tradition. Adam of Meaux, Robert of Newminster, and Alexander of Kirkstall were all monastic founders and, inevitably, builders....