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Article

Claudia Büttner

(b Hamburg, July 17, 1883; d W. Berlin, Dec 11, 1973).

German painter. He studied in Hamburg under the German painter Arthur Siebelist (1870–1946) in 1900. In 1907 he went to Paris, where he sought contact with French modernism and its protagonists in the Café du Dôme and as a student at the Académie Matisse. His works completed before World War I reflect the colour of Matisse and the fragmented planes of Cézanne (e.g. Girl in Kimono, oil, 1910; priv. col., see exh. cat., pl. 5). In the inter-war years his depictions of landscapes, portraits and still-lifes are characterized by the harmony of the abstract rhythm of their planes and forms and by the use of silhouettes indebted to Cubism (e.g. From Old Letters, 1933; priv. col., see exh. cat., pl. 10). From 1928 until his dismissal by the Nazis in 1933 Ahlers-Hestermann taught at art colleges in Hamburg and Cologne. From 1946 to 1949 he was head of the Landeskunstschule in Hamburg....

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 March 1871, in Waidhofen-am-Ybbs; died 19 May 1956, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Genre scenes. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Secession group.

Andri studied under Julius Berger and Edouard Lichtenfels at the Venice Academy, then, from 1892, under Claus Meyer at Karlsruhe Academy, before returning to settle in Venice. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 17 March 1885, in La Ferté-Vidame (Eure-et-Loir); died 1953.

Painter, ceramicist, glassmaker.

Art Nouveau.

Gabriel Argy-Rousseau studied at the school of ceramics in Sèvres. He participated in the Salon d'Automne between 1920 and 1924, and exhibited glassware and enamel work at the Salon des Artistes Français in ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1863, in Beauvais; died c. 1938.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Together with Steinlen and Willette, among others, Georges Auriol belonged to the group of artists who frequented the cabaret Le Chat Noir. He also wrote songs and humorous whimsical pieces. In ...

Article

Libero Andreotti

(b Rovereto, Dec 10, 1896; d Milan, Sept 26, 1982).

Italian architect, stage designer and painter . After studying at the Scuola Reale Elisabettiana, an applied arts school in Rovereto, he joined the Futurist movement, headed locally by Fortunato Depero. After serving in World War I, he enrolled at the Scuola Superiore di Architettura del Politecnico, Milan, graduating in architecture in 1922. He then spent four years (1922–6) in Berlin working as a stage designer and frequenting the avant-garde milieu around Max Reinhardt, Erwin Piscator and Oskar Kokoschka. He returned to Italy in 1926 and set up his own practice. His first important commission, the remodelling of the Bar Craja (1930; with Figini and Pollini) in Milan, with its handsome glass and steel interior, established Baldessari’s reputation as an innovative designer. He collaborated again with Figini and Pollini on the De Angeli-Frua office building (1931–2) in Milan, a fine example of Italian Rationalism at its most restrained. Baldessari’s architectural masterpiece of this period was, however, the Press Pavilion (...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(b Fortaleza, May 26, 1922; d Paris, Oct 6, 1967).

Brazilian painter. In the first half of the 1940s, while still in his native state of Ceará, he was very active in the introduction of modernist ideas. In 1945 he moved to Rio de Janeiro and in 1946 to Paris, where he spent most of the rest of his life. In Paris, where he studied at the Ecole Supérieure de Beaux-Arts and at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, he first painted landscapes and portraits (e.g. Self-portrait, 1947; Rio de Janeiro, Gilberto Chateaubriand priv. col.) that combined elements from Surrealism and Expressionism. He later adopted a gestural abstraction that maintained its links with the outside world through analogies established in poetic titles (e.g. Flowing like a Waterfall, 1964; Rio de Janeiro, Roberto Marinho priv. col.). At the beginning of his stay in France he was briefly part of an informal association with two other artists sharing a similar artistic language, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1882, in Nantes; died 1932.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, stylist. Figures, portraits, landscapes. Stage costumes and sets.

Art Deco.

On the suggestion of his friends Lesage and Broca, Georges Barbier studied with Jean-Paul Laurens. He was to work mainly for the theatre and the cinema, designing costumes and sets. He was responsible for Rudolph Valentino's costumes in the film ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Minas de Ríotinto, Huelva, Jan 12, 1871; d Vera de Bidasoa, Navarra, 1953).

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908. He also began etching c. 1908, and it became his favourite technique, although he also made lithographs. Both his prints and paintings have a literary content and focus thematically on life’s human aspects in a way reminiscent of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec. He illustrated Rubén Darío’s Coloquio de los centauros. Despite their lack of fine detail, his prints are realistic, for example Bar Types (etching and aquatint, c. 1906–9; Madrid, Bib. N.) and Beggars (etching and aquatint, c. 1910; Madrid, Bib. N.). His impressionistic painting style of the 1920s became more roughly worked later, possibly due to the loss of an eye in 1931. In ...

Article

Hungarian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 16 April 1873, in Budapest.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist.

Art Nouveau.

Arpad Basch studied with Karlovsky in 1873 at the school of arts and crafts in Budapest, then in Munich with Hollósy, and in Paris with Léon Bonnat and Jean Paul Laurens....

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 21 August 1872, in Brighton; died 16 March 1898, in Menton, France.

Draughtsman, illustrator.

Japonisme, Art Nouveau.

Aubrey Beardsley's originality and superior draughtsmanship place him at the forefront of developments in illustration techniques and styles, despite only a brief art education at the Westminster Art School in London. There he studied the nude, having been encouraged to take up art as a career by Edward Burne-Jones. Tuberculosis and his association with Oscar Wilde led to repeated visits to France. He died in Menton in 1898 at the age of 25....

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 7 October 1930, in Riga, Latvia; died 11 February 2002, in Riga.

Painter, graphicist, draughtsman, and academician. Landscape, genre, still-life, human figure, and abstract subjects.

Boriss Bērziņš’s artistic training began in childhood when the electrician’s son was exposed to Russian Orthodox icons. He copied reproductions of famous paintings and took lessons from watercolourist Jānis Skučs. He studied at Riga’s Janis Rozentāls Art High School ...

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 31 July 1863, in Rolle (Vaud); died 1948, in Lausanne.

Painter, engraver, decorative artist. Figure compositions, figures, portraits. Murals, designs for stained glass, furniture.

Art Nouveau.

Ernest Bieler was the uncle of André Charles Bieler. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and Gustave Boulanger. He divided his time between the mountainous regions of the Valais and the shores of Lake Geneva; his body of work evokes the everyday life of the peasant communities in the Valais and the Canton of Vaud at the beginning of the twentieth century. Bieler was commissioned to paint compositions for the ceiling of the Victoria hall in Geneva; decorative panels and windows for the federal government building in Bern; stained glass windows for the Vevey church of St-Martin; and decorations for the vintners' festival. Additionally, he exhibited woodcut engravings and designed furniture....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in Japan.

Born 1860, in Paris; died 1927.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator, poster artist.

Japonisme, Art Nouveau.

At a very young age, Georges Ferdinand Bigot trained under Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) and Carolus-Durand (1837-1917) at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He learnt etching with Félix Buhot and collaborated on the journal ...

Article

Latvian, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 6 September 1943, in Riga, Reichskommissariat Ostland (now Latvia).

Painter, scenographer, poster designer, graphicist, and book illustrator. Literary, allegorical and historical subjects; abstractions and symbolic representations; installations, performance, and soundworks.

Ilmārs Blumbergs spent his childhood in Siberian exile, then studied in the Department of Stage Design at Riga’s Secondary School of Applied Arts ...

Article

Susan Pares

[Pak Sŏ-bo]

(b1931).

Korean painter and teacher. He graduated in 1954 from the Fine Arts College, Hong’ik University, Seoul, and exhibited in Korea, East and South-east Asia, the USA, Europe and elsewhere. He is regarded as a leader of Korean modernism. Park has used a variety of techniques. Typical of his Art informel stage is Painting No. 1 (1957; oil on canvas, priv. col., see Young-na Kim, p. 177), where paint was splashed on to the canvas. In his ‘white’ paintings, thin layers of gesso were applied over a period of time, then graphite and gesso were applied alternately to build up a surface. In 1989 he began to use tak (mulberry bark paper), laid in three layers on canvas, sealed with gesso and overlaid with acrylic paint. Further sheets of paper, soaked in acrylic medium or Korean ink, were then laid, and the surface was manipulated with the fingers or an implement. In working or marking the surface Park’s intention was to help the medium to express itself by adding nothing more than a sign of his involvement, which he termed his ‘écriture’; one of his works is titled simply ...

Article

Austrian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 February 1861, in Vienna; died 20 February 1927, in Klosterneuburg.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator.

Art Nouveau.

Adolf Böhm was a co-founder, together with Gustav Klimt and the architect Joseph Hoffmann, of the Viennese Sezession movement in the closing years of the 19th century. Vienna was the city where 'Jugendstil' (literally, 'Youthful Style'), a movement that rejected academic conformity, first flowered; it would later spread to Germany, France, Belgium, England and elsewhere. He taught in the women's department of the academy of fine arts ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 15 October 1886, in Paris; died 1972.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Nudes, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers.

Art Deco.

Bonfils exhibited his work in Paris at the Salon des Tuileries and especially at the Salon d'Automne until 1938. He is considered to be a typical Art Deco style artist and took part in an exhibition at the Pavillon de Marsan: ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1888, in Meissen; died 1970, in Meissen.

Painter (porcelain). Figures. Designs (medals/medallions).

Jugendstil, Art Deco.

Paul Börner trained at a private porcelain painting studio in Meissen between 1902 and 1905. From 1905 to 1910, he took lessons at the Kunstgewerbeschule, and then at the Kunstakademie in Dresden, where he was a pupil of Richard Müller and Oskar Zwintscher. He travelled to Italy ...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 10 July 1868, in Boston; died 1962, in New Jersey.

Draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist. Toys.

Art Nouveau.

Will Bradley was the son of a caricaturist who worked on the Daily Item, a newspaper published in Lynn, Massachusetts. At the age of 12, he became apprentice to a printer and then began drawing and illustrating, making this his full-time occupation ...