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Italian, 11th – 12th century, male.

Born probably in the 11th century, in Amalfi; died possibly in the 12th century.


A Benedictine monk, in 1072 Leone wrote in Monte Cassino Various Homilies, which he illuminated with intricately painted miniatures, portraits and biblical scenes. He is thought to be the same Leo who was Cardinal Archbishop of Ostia and secretary to Pope Urban II, and who died in ...


Spanish, 11th – 12th century, male.

Active at the end of the 11th century and at the beginning of the 12th century.

Born to a family originally from the Berga region.


This artist painted the frescoes in the Mozarabic church of S Quirce that are preserved in the museums of Solsona and Barcelona. Although some experts have attributed to him the decorations of the apse of the cupola of Sta Maria Esterri in Aneu, J. Lassaigne does not think they are his work. Nor does he think that the paintings of S Pedro, Burgal should be attributed to him. The resemblances between these works can almost certainly be explained by the existence of a school centred on the Master. He gives new life to the scenes he depicts and renders daily life simply and sometimes with humour. In contrast with the Master of Tahull, he does not comply with the strict rules of Byzantine art, and he allows his individuality, feeling, and even imagination to shine through. His colours no longer simply follow the stylistic criteria of a traditional iconography, but are far more natural....


P. Cornelius Claussen

(b ?Verdun; fl 1181–1205).

French goldsmith. His known works indicate that he was one of the leading metalworkers of his day and an early exponent of the classicizing styles around 1200 that formed a transition between Romanesque and Gothic. In his two dated signatures, nicolaus virdunensis (1181) on the enamel decoration of the former pulpit in Klosterneuburg Abbey, Austria (see fig.), and magister nicholaus de verdum (1205) on the Shrine of the Virgin in Tournai Cathedral, the artist gave as his place of origin Verdun, in Lorraine, an area that in the 12th century had close economic and cultural links with the Rhineland, Champagne, the Ile-de-France and the metalworking centres of the Meuse. A more ambiguous signature, nicolaus de verda, was on the pedestal of one of a lost pair of enthroned, silver-gilt statuettes in Worms Cathedral representing St Peter and the founder Queen Constance, the wife either of Emperor Henry VI (m. ...